Pascal – Environment Set Up

July 5, 2019

There are several Pascal compilers and interpreters available for general use. Among these are − Turbo Pascal − provides an IDE and compiler for running Pascal programs on CP/M, CP/M-86, DOS, Windows and Macintosh. Delphi − provides […]

Pascal – Overview

July 5, 2019

Pascal is a general-purpose, high-level language that was originally developed by Niklaus Wirth in the early 1970s. It was developed for teaching programming as a systematic discipline and to develop reliable and efficient programs. Pascal […]

Pascal Tutorial

July 5, 2019

Pascal is a procedural programming language, designed in 1968 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth and named in honour of the French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal. Pascal runs on a variety of platforms, […]

Blockchain – Conclusion

July 5, 2019

In this short tutorial you were introduced to several concepts of Blockchain by taking Bitcoin as a case study. The Bitcoin is the first successful implementation of blockchain. Today, the world has found applications of […]

Bitcoin – Mitigating Attacks

July 5, 2019

I will discuss three different types of probable attacks in the Bitcoin system − Race Attack As an attacker, you may send the same coin to different vendors in rapid succession, probably by using two […]

Blockchain – Privacy

July 5, 2019

As the ledger which is recording all the bitcoin transactions is made truly public, the privacy is at stake. Anybody in the world would be able to know who paid whom? The traditional banking system […]

Blockchain – Resolving Conflicts

July 5, 2019

As we have seen the Bitcoin network contains several miners. It is possible, that the two different miners solve the Proof-of-Work at the same time and thus add their blocks to the last known block […]

Blockchain – Payment Verification

July 5, 2019

Consider a case whereby as a vendor you may like to verify a certain payment made in the past. As the blockchain you are holding on your machine contains only the block headers as shown […]

Blockchain – Merkle Tree

July 5, 2019

The issue of disk space in a node is easily overcome because all transactions in a block are hashed in a Merkle Tree as shown in image − The block header now contains the hash […]

Blockchain – Incentives to Miners

July 5, 2019

As we saw in the chapter Bitcoin – Mining, a miner may be flooded with many transactions at any given period of time. The maximum size for a block is pre-defined in the system necessitating […]

Blockchain – Network & Mining

July 5, 2019

I will now summarize the steps described above; this is what happens in the network − Anybody who wants to obtain services from the third party who has advertised on the network first creates a […]

Blockchain – Proof of Work

July 5, 2019

As all transactions are time stamped, we need to implement a distributed timestamp server on a peer-to-peer network. This requires some additional implementation and that is the Proof-of-Work that I will describe now. To each […]

Blockchain – Chaining Blocks

July 5, 2019

The blocks created by various miners are chained together to form what is known as a truly distributed public ledger. Each block in the chain contains multiple messages (transactions) as seen earlier in Figure 8. […]

Bitcoin – Mining

July 5, 2019

When Bob creates a purchase request for Lisa, he does not send it to Lisa alone. Rather the request message is broadcasted on the entire network to which he is connected. Bob’s network is depicted […]

Blockchain – Hashing

July 5, 2019

One of the most important function in PKI is the hashing function. A hash function maps the data of any arbitrary size to data of fixed size. Bitcoin uses SHA-256 hash function that produces a […]

Blockchain – Public Key Cryptography

July 5, 2019

Public Key Cryptography or in short PKI is also known as asymmetric cryptography. It uses two pairs of keys – public and private. A key is a some long binary number. The public key is […]

Bitcoin – Brief History

July 5, 2019

The Bitcoin was introduced in this world by Satoshi Nakamoto through a research-style white paper entitled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System in the year 2008. The Bitcoin not only solved the double-spending problem, but also offered […]

Blockchain – Double Spending

July 5, 2019

Consider a situation shown in image − As clearly seen here, Bob is tendering a $10 bill to Lisa in exchange of a book. Once the Lisa receives this physical $10 bill, there is no […]

Blockchain – Introduction

July 5, 2019

In recent years, there is a lot of buzz on Blockchain. Many have described this as a most disruptive technology of the decade. Especially, the financial markets could be the most affected ones. The technology […]

Blockchain Tutorial

July 5, 2019

A blockchain is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data. Blockchain has been in a […]

Bitcoin – Future

July 5, 2019

Since Bitcoin is a new emerging technology which is underway, unforeseen developments can make its existence and continuation difficult. Concerning its security and future, there are numerous questions which no one can answer. How far […]

Bitcoin – Applications

July 5, 2019

The following is a list of applications of bitcoins Bitcoins are being used to buy goods and services as more and more stores across the world are accepting bitcoin payments. Bitcoin transactions provide a customized […]

Bitcoin – Glossary

July 5, 2019

In this chapter, we shall learn bitcoin glossary which describes over 50 bitcoin terms. Address A bitcoin address allows us to send and receive bitcoins on the bitcoin network. It is also the public key […]

Bitcoin – Trading

July 5, 2019

Bitcoin trading can be highly profitable for professional investors as well as beginners. The market is new, highly fragmented and has huge spreads. It is open to arbitrage and margin trading. Thus, it is possible […]

Bitcoin – Exchanges

July 5, 2019

Cryptocurrency exchange is where users can come together and trade in different cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies. Online currency exchanges are websites that are used for trading, that is, buying or selling bitcoins for dollars or […]

Bitcoin – Mining

July 5, 2019

With Bitcoins, the process of creating the currency is called mining. Bitcoin miners use specialized software and hardware to verify bitcoin transactions and to solve complex math problems and are compensated by a certain number […]

Bitcoin – Wallet

July 5, 2019

As we have already discussed, Bitcoin is a virtual currency made up of 0s and 1s. They are collected and stored in a software portfolio called a wallet. A wallet identifies amount of cryptocurrency with unique addresses that are […]

Bitcoin – How do they work?

July 5, 2019

The process of creating or minting bitcoins is difficult to hack and this gives security to bitcoins. Another layer of security is the provision that every transaction has to be verified before being validated. This […]

Bitcoin – Features

July 5, 2019

We have seen that bitcoins are becoming more and more popular and their usage is increasing at accelerated pace geographically. We will understand this process if we study different useful features of bitcoin that make […]

Bitcoin – Cryptocurrencies

July 5, 2019

Cryptocurrency is digital currency that uses cryptography to secure its transactions. It is difficult to make counterfeit crypto currency because of this security feature. A remarkable feature of any cryptocurrency, is the fact that it […]

Bitcoin – Blockchain Technology

July 5, 2019

It is believed that Blockchain is a new age technology that is solution waiting for a host of problems. There is no doubt that it is a new wonder in the field of computing. What is a […]

Bitcoin – Environmental Setup

July 5, 2019

Satoshi Nakamoto released the first bitcoin software as open source code in January 2009. He later renamed it to “Bitcoin Core” to differentiate it from Bitcoin network. Bitcoin Core is a bitcoin implementation. It is […]

Bitcoin – Introduction

July 5, 2019

Bitcoin emerged out of the 2008 global economic crisis when big banks were caught misusing borrowers’ money, manipulating the system, and charging exorbitant fees. To address such issues, Bitcoin creators wanted to put the owners […]

Bitcoin Tutorial

July 5, 2019

The tutorial begins by introducing what bitcoins are, then proceeds with the installation of the bitcoin client software and wallets to make bitcoins transactions possible. It also discusses bitcoin mining, exchanges, and trading. Finally, it […]

Arduino – Network Communication

July 5, 2019

The CC3000 WiFi module from Texas Instruments is a small silver package, which finally brings easy-to-use, affordable WiFi functionality to your Arduino projects. It uses SPI for communication (not UART!) so you can push data […]

Arduino – Wireless Communication

July 5, 2019

The wireless transmitter and receiver modules work at 315 Mhz. They can easily fit into a breadboard and work well with microcontrollers to create a very simple wireless data link. With one pair of transmitter […]

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