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Scholar Engagement – Computer-based know-how and scholar engagement: a important assessment of the literatur


Scholar Engagement – Pc-based know-how has infiltrated many facets of life and business, but there’s little understanding of how it may be used to advertise scholar engagement, an idea receiving robust consideration in greater training as a result of its affiliation with quite a few constructive tutorial outcomes.

The aim of this text is to current a important assessment of the literature from the previous 5 years associated to how web-conferencing software program, blogs, wikis, social networking websites (Fb and Twitter), and digital video games affect scholar engagement.

We prefaced the findings with a substantive overview of scholar engagement definitions and indicators, which revealed three varieties of engagement (behavioral, emotional, and cognitive) that knowledgeable how we labeled articles. Our findings counsel that digital video games present probably the most far-reaching affect throughout various kinds of scholar engagement, adopted by web-conferencing and Fb.

Scholar Engagement – Findings concerning wikis, blogs, and Twitter are much less conclusive and considerably restricted in variety of research carried out inside the previous 5 years.

Scholar Engagement – Total, the findings present preliminary help that computer-based know-how influences scholar engagement, nonetheless, extra analysis is required to substantiate and construct on these findings.

We conclude the article by offering an inventory of suggestions for observe, with the intent of accelerating understanding of how computer-based know-how could also be purposefully applied to realize the best good points in scholar engagement.7

scholar engagement


The digital revolution has profoundly affected day by day dwelling, evident within the ubiquity of cell gadgets and the seamless integration of know-how into widespread duties equivalent to buying, studying, and discovering instructions (Anderson, 2016; Smith & Anderson,

2016; Zickuhr & Raine, 2014). Using computer systems, cell gadgets, and the Web is at its highest degree so far and anticipated to proceed to extend as know-how turns into extra accessible, notably for customers in creating nations (Poushter, 2016).

As well as, there’s a rising variety of people who find themselves smartphone dependent, relying solely on smartphones for Web entry (Anderson & Horrigan, 2016) slightly than dearer gadgets equivalent to laptops and tablets.

Higher entry to and demand for know-how has introduced distinctive alternatives and challenges for a lot of industries, a few of which have thrived by successfully digitizing their operations and providers (e.g., finance, media) and others which have struggled to maintain up with the tempo of technological innovation (e.g., training, healthcare) (Gandhi, Khanna, & Ramaswamy, 2016).

Integrating know-how into educating and studying just isn’t a brand new problem for universities. Because the 1900s, directors and college have grappled with how you can successfully use technical improvements equivalent to video and audio recordings, electronic mail, and teleconferencing to reinforce or substitute conventional tutorial supply strategies (Kaware & Sain, 2015; Westera, 2015).

Inside the previous twenty years, nonetheless, this problem has been way more tough because of the sheer quantity of latest applied sciences available on the market.

For instance, within the span of seven years (from 2008 to 2015), the variety of energetic apps in Apple’s App Retailer elevated from 5000 to 1.75 million. Over the subsequent Four years, the variety of apps is projected to rise by 73%, totaling over 5 million (Nelson, 2016).

Additional compounding this problem is the restricted shelf life of latest gadgets and software program mixed with important inner organizational limitations that hinder universities from effectively and successfully integrating new applied sciences (Amirault, 2012; Kinchin, 2012; Linder-VanBerschot & Summers 2015; Westera, 2015).

Many organizational limitations to know-how integration come up from competing tensions between institutional coverage and observe and college beliefs and skills. For instance, college directors could view know-how as a software to draw and retain college students, whereas college could wrestle to find out how know-how coincides with current pedagogy (Lawrence & Lentle-Keenan, 2013; Lin, Singer, & Ha, 2010).

As well as, some college could also be hesitant to make use of know-how as a result of lack of technical information and/or skepticism in regards to the efficacy of know-how to enhance scholar studying outcomes (Ashrafzadeh & Sayadian, 2015; Buchanan, Sainter, & Saunders, 2013; Hauptman, 2015; Johnson, 2013; Kidd, Davis, & Larke, 2016; Kopcha, Rieber, & Walker, 2016; Lawrence & Lentle-Keenan, 2013; Lewis, Fretwell, Ryan, & Parham, 2013; Reid, 2014).

Organizational limitations to know-how adoption are notably problematic given the rising calls for and perceived advantages amongst college students about utilizing know-how to be taught (Amirault, 2012; Cassidy et al., 2014; Gikas & Grant, 2013; Paul & Cochran, 2013).

Surveys counsel that two-thirds of scholars use cell gadgets for studying and imagine that know-how might help them obtain studying outcomes and higher put together them for a workforce that’s more and more depending on know-how (Chen, Seilhamer, Bennett, & Bauer, 2015; Dahlstrom, 2012).

Universities that fail to successfully combine know-how into the educational expertise miss alternatives to enhance scholar outcomes and meet the expectations of a scholar physique that has grown accustomed to the mixing of know-how into each aspect of life (Amirault, 2012; Cook dinner & Sonnenberg, 2014; Revere & Kovach, 2011; Solar & Chen, 2016; Westera, 2015).

The aim of this paper is to supply a literature assessment on how computer-based know-how influences scholar engagement inside greater training settings. We targeted on computer-based know-how given the particular varieties of applied sciences (i.e., web-conferencing software program, blogs, wikis, social networking websites, and digital video games) that emerged from a broad search of the literature, which is described in additional element under.

Pc-based know-how (hereafter known as know-how) requires the usage of particular {hardware}, software program, and micro processing options obtainable on a pc or cell machine.

We additionally targeted on scholar engagement because the dependent variable of curiosity as a result of it encompasses many alternative facets of the educating and studying course of (Bryson & Hand, 2007; Fredricks, Blumenfeld, & Parks, 1994; Wimpenny & Savin-Baden, 2013), in contrast narrower variables within the literature equivalent to remaining grades or examination scores.

Moreover, scholar engagement has obtained important consideration over the previous a number of a long time as a result of shifts in direction of student-centered, constructivist tutorial strategies (Haggis, 2009; Wright, 2011),

mounting pressures to enhance educating and studying outcomes (Axelson & Flick, 2011; Kuh, 2009), and promising research suggesting relationships between scholar engagement and constructive tutorial outcomes (Carini, Kuh, & Klein, 2006; Middle for Postsecondary Analysis, 2016; Hu & McCormick, 2012).

Regardless of the curiosity in scholar engagement and the demand for extra know-how in greater training, there are not any articles providing a complete assessment of how these two variables intersect.

Equally, whereas many current scholar engagement conceptual fashions have expanded to incorporate components that affect scholar engagement, none spotlight the overt position of know-how within the engagement course of (Kahu, 2013; Lam, Wong, Yang, & Yi, 2012; Nora, Barlow, & Crisp, 2005; Wimpenny & Savin-Baden, 2013; Zepke & Leach, 2010).

Our assessment goals to deal with current gaps within the scholar engagement literature and seeks to find out whether or not scholar engagement fashions ought to be expanded to incorporate know-how.

The assessment additionally addresses a few of the organizational limitations to know-how integration (e.g., college uncertainty and skepticism about know-how) by offering a complete account of the analysis proof concerning how know-how influences scholar engagement.

One limitation of the literature, nonetheless, is the dearth of element concerning how educating and studying practices had been used to pick out and combine know-how into studying. For instance, the methodology part of many research doesn’t embrace a pedagogical justification for why a specific know-how was used or particulars in regards to the design of the educational exercise itself.

Due to this fact, it typically is unclear how educating and studying practices could have affected scholar engagement ranges. We revisit this difficulty in additional element on the finish of this paper in our discussions of areas for future analysis and suggestions for observe.

We initiated our literature assessment by conducting a broad seek for articles revealed inside the previous 5 years, utilizing the important thing phrases know-how and greater training, in Google Scholar and the next analysis databases: Educational Search Full, Communication & Mass Media Full, Computer systems & Utilized Sciences Full, Training Analysis Full, ERIC, PsycARTICLES, and PsycINFO.

Our preliminary search revealed themes concerning which applied sciences had been most prevalent within the literature (e.g., social networking, digital video games), which then result in a number of, extra focused searches of the identical databases utilizing particular key phrases equivalent to Fb and scholar engagement.

After each broad and focused searches, we recognized 5 applied sciences (web-conferencing software program, blogs, wikis, social networking websites, and digital video games) to incorporate in our assessment.

We selected to concentrate on applied sciences for which there have been a number of research revealed, permitting us to determine areas of convergence and divergence within the literature and draw conclusions about constructive and unfavorable results on scholar engagement.

In whole, we recognized 69 articles related to our assessment, with 36 pertaining to social networking websites (21 for Fb and 15 for Twitter), 14 pertaining to digital video games, seven pertaining to wikis, and 6 pertaining to blogs and web-conferencing software program respectively.

Articles had been categorized in response to their affect on particular varieties of scholar engagement, which will likely be described in additional element under. In some cases, one article pertained to a number of varieties of engagement.

Within the sections that observe, we are going to present an summary of scholar engagement, together with an evidence of widespread definitions and indicators of engagement, adopted by a synthesis of how every sort of know-how influences scholar engagement. Lastly, we are going to focus on areas for future analysis and make suggestions for observe.

scholar engagement

Scholar engagement

Curiosity in scholar engagement started over 70 years in the past with Ralph Tyler’s analysis on the connection between time spent on coursework and studying (Axelson & Flick, 2011; Kuh, 2009).

Since then, the research of scholar engagement has developed and expanded significantly, by way of the seminal works of Tempo (1980; 1984) and Astin (1984) about how amount and high quality of scholar effort have an effect on studying and lots of newer research on the environmental circumstances and particular person inclinations that contribute to scholar engagement (Bakker, Vergel, & Kuntze, 2015; Gilboy, Heinerichs, & Pazzaglia, 2015; Martin, Goldwasser, & Galentino, 2017; Pellas, 2014).

Maybe probably the most well-known useful resource on scholar engagement is the Nationwide Survey of Scholar Engagement (NSSE), an instrument designed to evaluate scholar participation in varied instructional actions (Kuh, 2009).

The NSSE and different engagement devices prefer it have been utilized in many research that hyperlink scholar engagement to constructive scholar outcomes equivalent to greater grades, retention, persistence, and completion (Leach, 2016; McClenney, Marti, & Adkins, 2012; Trowler & Trowler, 2010), additional convincing universities that scholar engagement is a vital issue within the educating and studying course of.

Nonetheless, regardless of the elevated curiosity in scholar engagement, its that means is mostly not nicely understood or agreed upon.

Scholar engagement is a broad and complicated phenomenon for which there are numerous definitions grounded in psychological, social, and/or cultural views (Fredricks et al., 1994; Wimpenny & Savin-Baden, 2013; Zepke & Leach, 2010).

Evaluation of definitions revealed that scholar engagement is outlined in two methods. One set of definitions seek advice from scholar engagement as a desired end result reflective of a scholar’s ideas, emotions, and behaviors about studying. For instance, Kahu (2013) defines scholar engagement as an “particular person psychological state” that features a scholar’s have an effect on, cognition, and habits (p. 764).

Different definitions focus totally on scholar habits, suggesting that engagement is the “extent to which college students are participating in actions that greater training analysis has proven to be linked with high-quality studying outcomes” (Krause & Coates, 2008, p. 493) or the “high quality of effort and involvement in productive studying actions” (Kuh, 2009, p. 6).

One other set of definitions seek advice from scholar engagement as a course of involving each the scholar and the college.

For instance, Trowler (2010) outlined scholar engagement as “the interplay between the time, effort and different related assets invested by each college students and their establishments meant to optimize the scholar expertise and improve the educational outcomes and improvement of scholars and the efficiency, and repute of the establishment” (p. 2).

Equally, the NSSE web site signifies that scholar engagement is “the quantity of effort and time college students put into their research and different educationally purposeful actions” in addition to “how the establishment deploys its assets and organizes the curriculum and different studying alternatives to get college students to take part in actions that a long time of analysis research present are linked to scholar studying” (Middle for Postsecondary Analysis, 2017, para. 1).

Many current fashions of scholar engagement replicate the latter set of definitions, depicting engagement as a fancy, psychosocial course of involving each scholar and college traits. Such fashions arrange the engagement course of into three areas:

components that affect scholar engagement (e.g., institutional tradition, curriculum, and educating practices), indicators of scholar engagement (e.g., curiosity in studying, interplay with instructors and friends, and significant processing of knowledge), and outcomes of scholar engagement (e.g., tutorial achievement, retention, and private development) (Kahu, 2013; Lam et al., 2012; Nora et al., 2005).

On this assessment, we look at the literature to find out whether or not know-how influences scholar engagement. As well as, we are going to use Fredricks et al. (2004) typology of scholar engagement to arrange and current analysis findings, which means that there are three varieties of engagement (behavioral, emotional, and cognitive).

The typology is helpful as a result of it’s broad in scope, encompassing various kinds of engagement that seize a spread of scholar experiences, slightly than narrower typologies that supply particular or prescriptive conceptualizations of scholar engagement.

As well as, this typology is student-centered, focusing completely on student-focused indicators slightly than combining scholar indicators with confounding variables, equivalent to college habits, curriculum design, and campus setting (Coates, 2008; Kuh, 2009).

Whereas such variables are vital within the dialogue of scholar engagement, maybe as components which will affect engagement, they aren’t true indicators of scholar engagement. Utilizing the typology as a information,

we examined latest scholar engagement analysis, fashions, and measures to achieve a greater understanding of how behavioral, emotional, and cognitive scholar engagement are conceptualized and to determine particular indicators that correspond with every sort of engagement, as proven in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1

Conceptual framework of varieties and indicators of scholar engagement

Full dimension picture

Behavioral engagement is the diploma to which college students are actively concerned in studying actions (Fredricks et al., 2004; Kahu, 2013; Zepke, 2014). Indicators of behavioral engagement embrace effort and time spent taking part in studying actions (Coates, 2008; Fredricks et al., 2004; Kahu, 2013; Kuh, 2009; Lam et al., 2012;
Lester, 2013; Trowler, 2010) and interplay with friends, college, and employees (Coates, 2008; Kahu, 2013; Kuh, 2009; Bryson & Hand, 2007; Wimpenny & Savin-Baden, 2013: Zepke & Leach, 2010).

Indicators of behavioral engagement replicate observable scholar actions and most intently align with Tempo (1980) and Astin’s (1984) authentic conceptualizations of scholar engagement as amount and high quality of effort in direction of studying.

Emotional engagement is college students’ affective reactions to studying (Fredricks et al., 2004; Lester, 2013; Trowler, 2010). Indicators of emotional engagement embrace attitudes, pursuits, and values in direction of studying (Fredricks et al., 2004; Kahu, 2013; Lester, 2013; Trowler, 2010;

Wimpenny & Savin-Baden, 2013; Witkowski & Cornell, 2015) and a perceived sense of belonging inside a studying group (Fredricks et al., 2004; Kahu, 2013; Lester, 2013; Trowler, 2010; Wimpenny & Savin-Baden, 2013).

Emotional engagement typically is assessed utilizing self-report measures (Fredricks et al., 2004) and offers perception into how college students really feel a few specific subject, supply technique, or teacher. Lastly, cognitive engagement is the diploma to which college students put money into studying and expend psychological effort to understand and grasp content material (Fredricks et al., 2004; Lester, 2013).

Indicators of cognitive engagement embrace: motivation to be taught (Lester, 2013; Richardson & Newby, 2006; Zepke & Leach, 2010); persistence to beat tutorial challenges and meet/exceed necessities (Fredricks et al., 2004; Kuh, 2009; Trowler, 2010); and deep processing of knowledge (Fredricks et al., 2004; Kahu, 2013; Lam et al., 2012;

Richardson & Newby, 2006) by way of important pondering (Coates, 2008; Witkowski & Cornell, 2015), self-regulation (e.g., set targets, plan, arrange research effort, and monitor studying; Fredricks et al., 2004; Lester, 2013), and the energetic building of data (Coates, 2008; Kuh, 2009).

Whereas cognitive engagement contains motivational facets, a lot of the literature focuses on how college students use energetic studying and higher-order pondering, in some type, to realize content material mastery.

For instance, there’s important emphasis on the significance of deep studying, which includes analyzing new studying in relation earlier information, in comparison with floor studying, which is proscribed to memorization, recall, and rehearsal (Fredricks et al., 2004; Kahu, 2013; Lam et al., 2012).

Whereas every sort of engagement has distinct options, there’s some overlap throughout cognitive, behavioral, and emotional domains. In cases the place an indicator may correspond with a couple of sort of engagement, we selected to match the indicator to the kind of engagement that almost all intently aligned, based mostly on our assessment of the engagement literature and our interpretation of the symptoms.

Equally, there’s additionally some overlap amongst indicators. Consequently, we mixed and subsumed related indicators discovered within the literature, the place acceptable, to keep away from redundancy. Reaching an in-depth understanding of scholar engagement and related indicators was an vital pre-cursor to our assessment of the know-how literature.

Only a few articles used the time period scholar engagement as a dependent variable given the idea is so broad and multidimensional. We discovered that particular indicators (e.g., interplay, sense of belonging, and information building) of scholar engagement had been extra widespread within the literature as dependent variables.

Subsequent, we are going to present a synthesis of the findings concerning how various kinds of know-how affect behavioral, emotional, and cognitive scholar engagement and related indicators.

scholar engagement

Affect of know-how on scholar engagement

We recognized 5 applied sciences post-literature search (i.e., web-conferencing, blogs, wikis, social networking websites, and digital video games) to incorporate in our assessment, based mostly on frequency during which they appeared within the literature over the previous 5 years.

One commonality amongst these applied sciences is their potential worth in supporting a constructivist method to studying, characterised by the energetic discovery of data by way of reflection of experiences with one’s setting, the connection of latest information to prior information, and interplay with others (Boghossian, 2006; Clements, 2015).

One other commonality is that a lot of the applied sciences, besides maybe for digital video games, are designed primarily to advertise interplay and collaboration with others. Our search yielded only a few research on how informational applied sciences, equivalent to video lectures and podcasts, affect scholar engagement. Due to this fact, these applied sciences are notably absent from our assessment.

Not like the applied sciences we recognized earlier, informational applied sciences replicate a behaviorist method to studying during which college students are passive recipients of data that’s transmitted from an skilled (Boghossian, 2006).

The shortage of latest analysis on how informational applied sciences have an effect on scholar engagement could also be because of the growing shift from instructor-centered, behaviorist approaches to student-centered, constructivist approaches inside greater training (Haggis, 2009; Wright, 2011) together with the ubiquity of internet 2.zero applied sciences.


Net-conferencing software program offers a digital assembly house the place customers login concurrently and talk a few given subject. Whereas every software program utility is exclusive, many share related options equivalent to audio, video, or instantaneous messaging choices for real-time communication;

display sharing, whiteboards, and digital pens for shows and demonstrations; polls and quizzes for gauging comprehension or eliciting suggestions; and breakout rooms for small group work (Bower, 2011; Hudson, Knight, & Collins, 2012; Martin, Parker, & Deale, 2012; McBrien, Jones, & Cheng, 2009).

Of the applied sciences included on this literature assessment, web-conferencing software program most intently mimics the face-to-face classroom setting, offering an area the place instructors and college students can hear and see one another in real-time as typical classroom actions (i.e., delivering lectures, discussing course content material, asking/answering questions) are carried out (Francescucci & Foster, 2013; Hudson et al., 2012).

Research on web-conferencing software program deployed Adobe Join, Cisco WebEx, Horizon Wimba, or Blackboard Collaborate and made use of a number of options, equivalent to display sharing, instantaneous messaging, polling, and escape rooms.

As well as, a lot of the research built-in web-conferencing software program into programs on a voluntary foundation to complement conventional tutorial strategies (Andrew, Maslin-Prothero, & Ewens, 2015; Armstrong & Thornton, 2012; Francescucci & Foster, 2013; Hudson et al., 2012; Martin et al., 2012; Wdowik, 2014). Current research on web-conferencing pertain to all three varieties of scholar engagement.

Scholar Engagement – Research on web-conferencing and behavioral engagement reveal blended findings. For instance, voluntary attendance in web-conferencing classes ranged from 54 to 57% (Andrew et al., 2015; Armstrong & Thornton, 2012) and, in a comparability between a blended course with common web-conferencing classes and a standard, face-to-face course, researchers discovered no important distinction in scholar attendance in programs.

Scholar Engagement – Nonetheless, college students within the blended course reported greater ranges of sophistication participation in comparison with college students within the face-to-face course (Francescucci & Foster, 2013).

Scholar Engagement – These findings counsel whereas web-conferencing could not enhance attendance, particularly if voluntary, it might provide extra alternatives for sophistication participation, maybe by way of the usage of communication

channels usually not obtainable in a standard, face-to-face course (e.g., instantaneous messaging, nameless polling). Research on web-conferencing and interplay, one other behavioral indicator, help this assertion.

Scholar Engagement – For instance, researchers discovered that college students use varied options of web-conferencing software program (e.g., polling, instantaneous message, break-out rooms) to work together with friends and the teacher by asking questions, expressing opinions and concepts, sharing assets, and discussing tutorial content material (Andrew et al., 2015; Armstrong & Thornton, 2012; Hudson et al., 2012; Martin et al., 2012; Wdowik, 2014).

Scholar Engagement – Scholar Engagement – Research on web-conferencing and cognitive engagement are extra conclusive than these for behavioral engagement, though are fewer in quantity.

Scholar Engagement – Findings counsel that college students who participated in web-conferencing demonstrated important reflection and enhanced studying by way of interactions with others (Armstrong & Thornton, 2012), higher-order pondering (e.g., problem-solving, synthesis, analysis) in response to difficult assignments (Wdowik, 2014),

and motivation to be taught, notably when utilizing polling options (Hudson et al., 2012). There is just one research inspecting how web-conferencing impacts emotional engagement, though it’s constructive suggesting that college students who participated in web-conferences had greater ranges of curiosity in course content material than those that didn’t (Francescucci & Foster, 2013).

Scholar Engagement – One attainable purpose for the constructive cognitive and emotional engagement findings could also be that web-conferencing software program offers many options that promote energetic studying.

Scholar Engagement – For instance, whiteboards and breakout rooms present alternatives for real-time, collaborative problem-solving actions and discussions. Nonetheless, extra research are wanted to isolate and examine particular web-conferencing options to find out which have the best impact on scholar engagement.

Scholar Engagement – Blogs

A weblog, which is brief for Weblog, is a group of non-public journal entries, revealed on-line and introduced chronologically, to which readers (or subscribers) could reply by offering extra commentary or suggestions.

As a way to create a weblog, one should compose content material for an entry, which can embrace textual content, hyperlinks, graphics, audio, or video, publish the content material on-line utilizing a running a blog utility, and alert subscribers that new content material is posted.

Blogs could also be casual and private in nature or could function formal commentary in a particular style, equivalent to in politics or training (Coghlan et al., 2007). Thankfully, many weblog purposes are free, and lots of studying administration programs (LMSs) provide a running a blog characteristic that’s seamlessly built-in into the web classroom.

The convenience of running a blog has attracted consideration from educators, who presently use blogs as an tutorial software for the expression of concepts, opinions, and experiences and for selling dialogue on a variety of educational subjects (Garrity, Jones, VanderZwan, de la Rocha, & Epstein, 2014; Wang, 2008).

Research on blogs present constantly constructive findings for most of the behavioral and emotional engagement indicators.

For instance, college students reported that blogs promoted interplay with others, by way of larger communication and data sharing with friends (Chu, Chan, & Tiwari, 2012; Ivala & Gachago, 2012; Mansouri & Piki, 2016), and analyses of weblog posts present proof of scholars elaborating on each other’s concepts and sharing experiences and conceptions in fact content material (Sharma & Tietjen, 2016).

Blogs additionally contribute to emotional engagement by offering college students with alternatives to precise their emotions about studying and by encouraging constructive attitudes about studying (Dos & Demir, 2013; Chu et al., 2012; Yang & Chang, 2012).

For instance, Dos and Demir (2013) discovered that college students expressed prejudices and fears about particular course subjects of their weblog posts. As well as, Yang and Chang (2012) discovered that interactive running a blog, the place remark options had been enabled,

result in extra constructive attitudes about course content material and friends in comparison with solitary running a blog, the place remark options had been disabled.

The literature on blogs and cognitive engagement is much less constant. Some research counsel that blogs could assist college students have interaction in energetic studying, problem-solving, and reflection (Chawinga, 2017; Chu et al., 2012; Ivala & Gachago, 2012; Mansouri & Piki, 2016),

whereas different research counsel that college students’ weblog posts present little or no proof of higher-order pondering (Dos & Demir, 2013; Sharma & Tietjen, 2016).

The inconsistency in findings could also be because of the wording of weblog directions. College students could not essentially show or have interaction in deep processing of knowledge until explicitly instructed to take action. Sadly, it’s tough to find out whether or not the wording of weblog assignments contributed to the blended outcomes as a result of most of the research didn’t present project particulars.

Nonetheless, research pertaining to different applied sciences counsel that project wording that lacks specificity or requires low-level pondering can have detrimental results on scholar engagement outcomes (Hou, Wang, Lin, & Chang, 2015; Prestridge, 2014). Due to this fact, weblog assignments which might be obscure or require solely low-level pondering could have hostile results on cognitive engagement.

Scholar Engagement – Wikis

A wiki is an internet web page that may be edited by a number of customers directly (Nakamaru, 2012). Wikis have gained reputation in instructional settings as a viable software for group tasks the place group members can work collaboratively to develop content material

(i.e., writings, hyperlinks, photos, graphics, media) and hold monitor of revisions by way of an intensive versioning system (Roussinos & Jimoyiannis, 2013). Most research on wikis pertain to behavioral engagement, with far fewer research on cognitive engagement and none on emotional engagement.

Research pertaining to behavioral engagement reveal blended outcomes, with some displaying little or no enduring participation in wikis past the primary few weeks of the course (Nakamaru, 2012; Salaber, 2014) and one other displaying energetic participation, as seen in excessive numbers of posts and edits (Roussinos & Jimoyiannis, 2013).

Essentially the most notable distinction between these research is the presence of grading, which can account for the inconsistencies in findings.

For instance, in research the place participation was low, wikis had been ungraded, suggesting that college students may have further motivation and encouragement to make use of wikis (Nakamaru, 2012; Salaber, 2014). Findings concerning the usage of wikis for selling interplay are additionally inconsistent.

In some research, college students reported that wikis had been helpful for interplay, teamwork, collaboration, and group networking (Camacho, Carrión, Chayah, & Campos, 2016; Martínez, Medina, Albalat, & Rubió, 2013; Morely, 2012; Calabretto & Rao, 2011) and researchers discovered proof of considerable collaboration amongst college students

(e.g., sharing concepts, opinions, and factors of view) in wiki exercise (Hewege & Perera, 2013); nonetheless, Miller, Norris, and Bookstaver (2012) discovered that solely 58% of scholars reported that wikis promoted collegiality amongst friends.

The findings within the latter research had been surprising and could also be as a result of design flaws within the wiki assignments. For instance, the authors famous that wiki assignments weren’t explicitly referred to in face-to-face courses; subsequently, this disconnect could have prevented college students from constructing on interactive momentum achieved throughout out-of-class wiki assignments (Miller et al., 2012).

Research concerning cognitive engagement are restricted in quantity however extra constant than these regarding behavioral engagement, suggesting that wikis promote excessive ranges of data building (i.e., analysis of arguments, the mixing of a number of viewpoints, new understanding in fact subjects; Hewege & Perera, 2013), and are helpful for reflection, reinforcing course content material, and making use of tutorial expertise (Miller et al., 2012).

Total, there’s blended help for the usage of wikis to advertise behavioral engagement, though making wiki assignments necessary and explicitly referring to wikis in school could assist bolster participation and interplay.

As well as, there’s some help for utilizing wikis to advertise cognitive engagement, however extra research are wanted to substantiate and broaden on findings in addition to discover the impact of wikis on emotional engagement.

Scholar Engagement – Social networking websites

Social networking is “the observe of increasing information by making connections with people of comparable pursuits” (Gunawardena et al., 2009, p. 4). Social networking websites, equivalent to Fb, Twitter, Instagram, and LinkedIn, enable customers to create and share digital content material publicly or with others to whom they’re linked and talk privately by way of messaging options.

Two of the preferred social networking websites within the instructional literature are Fb and Twitter (Camus, Damage, Larson, & Prevost, 2016; Manca & Ranieri, 2013), which is in step with latest statistics suggesting that each websites are also exceedingly standard among the many common inhabitants (Greenwood, Perrin, & Duggan, 2016). Within the sections that observe, we look at how each Fb and Twitter affect various kinds of scholar engagement.

Scholar Engagement – Fb

Fb is a web-based service that permits customers to create a public or non-public profile and invite others to attach. Customers could construct social, tutorial, {and professional} connections by posting messages in varied media codecs (i.e., textual content, photos, movies) and commenting on, liking, and reacting to others’ messages (Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; Maben, Edwards, & Malone, 2014; Hou et al., 2015).

Inside an academic context, Fb has typically been used as a supplementary tutorial software to lectures or LMSs to help class discussions or develop, ship, and share tutorial content material and assets. Many instructors have opted to create non-public Fb teams, providing an added layer of safety and privateness as a result of teams are usually not accessible to strangers (Bahati, 2015;

Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; Clements, 2015; Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014; Esteves, 2012; Shraim, 2014; Maben et al., 2014; Manca & Ranieri, 2013; Naghdipour & Eldridge, 2016; Rambe, 2012). Nearly all of research on Fb deal with behavioral indicators of scholar engagement, with far fewer specializing in emotional or cognitive engagement.

Research that look at the affect of Fb on behavioral engagement focus each on participation in studying actions and interplay with friends and instructors. In most research,

Fb actions had been voluntary and participation charges ranged from 16 to 95%, with a mean of fee of 47% (Bahati, 2015; Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014; Fagioli, Rios-Aguilar, & Deil-Amen, 2015; Rambe, 2012; Staines & Lauchs, 2013).

Participation was assessed by monitoring what number of college students joined course- or university-specific Fb teams (Bahati, 2015; Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; Fagioli et al., 2015), visited or adopted course-specific Fb pages (DiVall & Kirwin, 2012; Staines & Lauchs, 2013), or posted at the least as soon as in a course-specific Fb web page (Rambe, 2012).

The bottom ranges of participation (16%) arose from a research the place group school college students had been invited to make use of the Faculties App, a free utility that connects college students to their college’s non-public Fb group.

Whereas the authors acknowledged that constructing a web-based group of faculty college students is tough (Fagioli et al., 2015), downloading the Faculties App could have been a deterrent to widespread participation. As well as, use of the app was not tied to any particular programs or assignments; subsequently, college students could have lacked sufficient incentive to make use of it.

The very best degree of participation (95%) within the literature arose from a research during which the teacher created a Fb web page the place college students may discover or put up research ideas or ask questions.

Followership to the web page was highest round exams, when college students doubtless had stronger motivations to entry research ideas and ask the teacher questions (DiVall & Kirwin, 2012).

The big selection of participation in Fb actions means that some college students could also be intrinsically motivated to take part, whereas different college students may have some exterior encouragement.

For instance, Bahati (2015) discovered that when college students assumed {that a} course-specific Fb was voluntary, solely 23% participated, however when the teacher confirmed that the Fb group was, in truth, necessary, the extent of participation rose to 94%.

Whereas voluntary participation in Fb actions could also be decrease than desired or anticipated (Dyson, Vickers, Turtle, Cowan, & Tassone, 2015; Fagioli et al., 2015; Naghdipour & Eldridge, 2016; Rambe, 2012), college students appear to have a transparent choice for Fb in comparison with different tutorial instruments (Clements, 2015; DiVall & Kirwin, 2012; Damage et al., 2012; Hou et al., 2015; Kent, 2013).

For instance, in a single research the place an teacher shared course-related info in a Fb group, within the LMS, and thru electronic mail, the extent of participation within the Fb group was ten instances greater than in electronic mail or the LMS (Clements, 2015).

In different research, class discussions held in Fb resulted in larger ranges of participation and dialogue than class discussions held in LMS dialogue boards (Camus et al., 2016; Damage et al., 2012; Kent, 2013).

Researchers discovered that choice for Fb over the college’s LMS is because of perceptions that the LMS is outdated and unorganized and reviews that Fb is extra acquainted, handy, and accessible provided that many college students already go to the social networking web site a number of instances per day (Clements, 2015; Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014; Damage et al., 2012; Kent, 2013).

As well as, college students report that Fb helps them keep engaged in studying by way of collaboration and interplay with each friends and instructors (Bahati, 2015; Shraim, 2014),

which is clear in Fb posts the place college students collaborated to review for exams, consulted on technical and theoretical downside fixing, mentioned course content material, exchanged studying assets, and expressed opinions in addition to tutorial successes and challenges (Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014; Esteves, 2012 Ivala & Gachago, 2012; Maben et al., 2014; Rambe, 2012; van Beynen & Swenson, 2016).

There’s far much less proof within the literature about the usage of Fb for emotional and cognitive engagement. When it comes to emotional engagement, research counsel that college students really feel positively about being a part of a course-specific Fb group

and that Fb is helpful for expressing emotions about studying and issues for friends, by way of options such because the “like” button and emoticons (Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014; Naghdipour & Eldridge, 2016).

As well as, being concerned in a course-specific Fb group was positively associated to college students’ sense of belonging within the course (Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014).

The analysis on cognitive engagement is much less conclusive, with some research suggesting that Fb participation is expounded to tutorial persistence (Fagioli et al., 2015) and self-regulation (Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014) whereas different research present low ranges of data building in Fb posts (Hou et al., 2015), notably when in comparison with discussions held within the LMS.

One attainable purpose could also be as a result of the LMS is related to formal, tutorial interactions whereas Fb is related to casual, social interactions (Camus et al., 2016).

Whereas extra analysis is required to substantiate the efficacy of Fb for selling cognitive engagement, research counsel that Fb could also be a viable software for growing particular behavioral and emotional engagement indicators, equivalent to interactions with others and a way of belonging inside a studying group.

scholar engagement


Twitter is a web-based service the place subscribers can put up brief messages, referred to as tweets, in real-time which might be not than 140 characters in size.

Tweets could comprise hyperlinks to different web sites, photos, graphics, and/or movies and could also be tagged by subject utilizing the hashtag image earlier than the designated label (e.g., #elearning).

Twitter subscribers could “observe” different customers and acquire entry to their tweets and likewise could “retweet” messages which have already been posted (Hennessy, Kirkpatrick, Smith, & Border, 2016; Osgerby & Rush, 2015; Prestridge, 2014; West, Moore, & Barry, 2015; Tiernan, 2014;).

Instructors could use Twitter to put up updates in regards to the course, make clear expectations, direct college students to extra studying supplies, and encourage college students to debate course content material (Bista, 2015; Williams & Whiting, 2016). A number of of the research on the usage of Twitter included broad, all-encompassing measures of scholar engagement and produced blended findings.

For instance, some research counsel that Twitter will increase scholar engagement (Evans, 2014; Gagnon, 2015; Junco, Heibergert, & Loken, 2011) whereas different research counsel that Twitter has little to no affect on scholar engagement

(Junco, Elavsky, & Heiberger, 2013; McKay, Sanko, Shekhter, & Birnbach, 2014). In each research suggesting little to no affect on scholar engagement, Twitter use was voluntary and in one of many research college involvement in Twitter was low, which can account for the unfavorable findings (Junco et al., 2013; McKay et al., 2014).

Conversely, within the research that present constructive findings, Twitter use was necessary and infrequently instantly built-in with required assignments (Evans, 2014; Gagnon, 2015; Junco et al., 2011).

Due to this fact, making Twitter use necessary, growing college involvement in Twitter, and integrating Twitter into assignments could assist to extend scholar engagement.

Research pertaining to particular behavioral scholar engagement indicators additionally reveal blended findings. For instance, in research the place course-related Twitter use was voluntary, 45-91% of scholars reported utilizing Twitter through the time period (Hennessy et al., 2016; Junco et al., 2013; Ross, Banow, & Yu, 2015;

Tiernan, 2014; Williams & Whiting, 2016), however solely 30-36% reported making contributions to the course-specific Twitter web page (Hennessy et al., 2016; Tiernan, 2014; Ross et al., 2015; Williams & Whiting, 2016). The research that reported a 91% participation fee was distinctive as a result of the course-specific Twitter web page was accessible through a public hyperlink.

Due to this fact, college students who selected solely to view the content material (58%), slightly than contribute to the web page, didn’t must create a Twitter account (Hennessy et al., 2016). The comfort of not having to create an account could also be one purpose for a lot greater participation charges.

When it comes to low participation charges, an absence of literacy, familiarity, and curiosity in Twitter, in addition to a choice for Fb, are cited as contributing components (Bista, 2015; McKay et al., 2014; Mysko & Delgaty, 2015; Osgerby & Rush, 2015; Tiernan, 2014). Nonetheless, when the usage of Twitter was required and built-in into class discussions, the participation fee was 100% (Gagnon, 2015).

Equally, 46% of scholars in a single research indicated that they’d have been extra motivated to take part in Twitter actions in the event that they had been graded (Osgerby & Rush, 2015), once more confirming the facility of extrinsic motivating components.

Research additionally present blended outcomes for the usage of Twitter to advertise interactions with friends and instructors. Researchers discovered that when instructors used Twitter to put up updates in regards to the course, ask and reply questions, and encourage college students to tweet about course content material, there was proof of student-student and student-instructor interactions in tweets (Hennessy et al., 2016; Tiernan, 2014).

Some college students echoed these findings, suggesting that Twitter is helpful for sharing concepts and assets, discussing course content material, asking the teacher questions, and networking (Chawinga, 2017; Evans, 2014; Gagnon, 2015; Hennessy et al., 2016; Mysko & Delgaty, 2015; West et al., 2015)

and is preferable over talking aloud in school as a result of it’s extra comfy, much less threatening, and extra concise because of the 140 character restrict (Gagnon, 2015; Mysko & Delgaty, 2015; Tiernan, 2014).

Conversely, different college students reported that Twitter was not helpful for bettering interplay as a result of they considered it predominately for social, slightly than tutorial, interactions they usually discovered the 140 character restrict to be irritating and restrictive.

A theme among the many latter research was that a big proportion of the pattern had by no means used Twitter earlier than (Bista, 2015; McKay et al., 2014; Osgerby & Rush, 2015), which can have contributed to unfavorable perceptions.

The literature on the usage of Twitter for cognitive and emotional engagement is minimal however nonetheless promising by way of selling information good points, the sensible utility of content material, and a way of belonging amongst customers.

For instance, utilizing Twitter to answer questions that arose in lectures and tweet about course content material all through the time period is related to elevated understanding in fact content material and utility of data (Kim et al., 2015; Tiernan, 2014; West et al., 2015).

Whereas the underlying mechanisms pertaining to why Twitter promotes an understanding of content material and utility of data are usually not fully clear, Tiernan (2014) means that one attainable purpose could also be that Twitter helps to interrupt down communication limitations, encouraging shy or timid college students to take part in discussions that in the end are richer in dialogue and debate.

When it comes to emotional engagement, college students who participated in a big, class-specific Twitter web page had been extra prone to really feel a way of group and belonging in comparison with those that didn’t take part as a result of they may extra simply discover help from and share assets with different Twitter customers (Ross et al., 2015).

Regardless of the constructive findings about the usage of Twitter for cognitive and emotional engagement, extra research are wanted to substantiate current outcomes concerning behavioral engagement and goal extra engagement indicators equivalent to motivation, persistence,

and attitudes, pursuits, and values about studying. As well as, given the robust unfavorable perceptions of Twitter that also exist, extra research are wanted to substantiate Twitter’s efficacy for selling various kinds of behavioral engagement amongst each novice and skilled Twitter customers, notably when in comparison with extra acquainted instruments equivalent to Fb or LMS dialogue boards.

Scholar Engagement – Digital video games

Digital video games are “purposes utilizing the traits of video and pc video games to create participating and immersive studying experiences for supply of specified studying targets, outcomes and experiences” (de Freitas, 2006, p. 9).

Digital video games typically serve the twin objective of selling the achievement of studying outcomes whereas making studying enjoyable by offering simulations of real-world situations in addition to position play, problem-solving, and drill and repeat actions (Boyle et al., 2016; Connolly, Boyle, MacArthur, Hainey, & Boyle, 2012; Scarlet & Ampolos, 2013; Whitton, 2011).

As well as, gamified parts, equivalent to digital badges and leaderboards, could also be built-in into instruction to supply extra motivation for finishing assigned readings and different studying actions (Armier, Shepherd, & Skrabut, 2016; Hew, Huang, Chu, & Chiu, 2016).

The pedagogical advantages of digital video games are considerably distinct from the opposite applied sciences addressed on this assessment, that are designed primarily for social interplay.

Whereas digital video games could also be performed in groups or enable one participant to compete in opposition to one other, the main focus of their design typically is on offering alternatives for college students to work together with tutorial content material in a digital setting by way of decision-making, problem-solving, and reward mechanisms.

For instance, a digital recreation could require college students to undertake a task as CEO in a computer-simulated enterprise setting, make choices a few sequence of organizational points, and reply to the results of these choices. On this instance and others, digital video games use adaptive studying rules, the place the educational setting is re-configured or modified in response to the actions and desires of scholars (Bower, 2016).

A lot of the research on digital video games targeted on cognitive and emotional indicators of scholar engagement, in distinction to the earlier applied sciences addressed on this assessment which primarily targeted on behavioral indicators of engagement.

Current research present help for the affect of digital video games on cognitive engagement, by way of attaining a larger understanding in fact content material and demonstrating higher-order pondering expertise (Beckem & Watkins, 2012; Farley, 2013; Ke, Xie, & Xie, 2016; Marriott, Tan, & Marriott, 2015),

notably when in comparison with conventional tutorial strategies, equivalent to giving lectures or assigning textbook readings (Lu, Hallinger, & Showanasai, 2014; Siddique, Ling, Roberson, Xu, & Geng, 2013; Zimmermann, 2013).

For instance, in a research evaluating programs that provided pc simulations of enterprise challenges (e.g, implementing a brand new info know-how system, managing a startup firm, and managing a model of medication in a simulated market setting) and programs that didn’t, college students in simulation-based programs reported greater ranges of action-directed studying (i.e., connecting concept to observe in a enterprise context)

than college students in conventional, non-simulation-based programs (Lu et al., 2014). Equally, engineering college students who participated in a automobile simulator recreation, which was designed to assist college students apply and reinforce the information gained from lectures, demonstrated greater ranges of important pondering (i.e., evaluation, analysis) on a quiz than college students who solely attended lectures (Siddique et al., 2013).

Motivation is one other cognitive engagement indicator that’s linked to digital video games (Armier et al., 2016; Chang & Wei, 2016; Dichev & Dicheva, 2017; Grimley, Inexperienced, Nilsen, & Thompson, 2012; Hew et al., 2016; Ibáñez, Di-Serio, & Delgado-Kloos, 2014; Ke et al., 2016;

Liu, Cheng, & Huang, 2011; Nadolny & Halabi, 2016). Researchers discovered that incorporating gamified parts into programs, equivalent to giving college students digital rewards (e.g., redeemable factors, trophies, and badges)

for taking part in studying actions or creating competitors by way of the usage of leaderboards the place college students can see how they rank in opposition to different college students positively impacts scholar motivation to finish studying duties (Armier et al., 2016; Chang & Wei, 2016;

Hew et al., 2016; Nadolny & Halabi, 2016). As well as, college students who participated in gamified parts, equivalent to making an attempt to earn digital badges, had been extra motivated to finish notably tough studying actions (Hew et al., 2016) and confirmed persistence in exceeding studying necessities (Ibáñez et al., 2014).

Analysis on emotional engagement could assist to elucidate these findings. Research counsel that digital video games positively have an effect on scholar attitudes about studying, evident in scholar reviews that video games are enjoyable, attention-grabbing, and satisfying (Beckem & Watkins, 2012; Farley, 2013; Grimley et al., 2012; Hew et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2011; Zimmermann, 2013), which can account for greater ranges of scholar motivation in programs that provided digital video games.

Analysis on digital video games and behavioral engagement is extra restricted, with just one research suggesting that video games result in larger participation in instructional actions (Hew et al., 2016). Due to this fact, extra analysis is required to discover how digital video games could affect behavioral engagement.

As well as, analysis is required to find out whether or not the underlying know-how related to digital video games (e.g., computer-based simulations and digital realities) produce constructive engagement outcomes or whether or not widespread mechanisms related to each digital and non-digital video games (e.g., position play, rewards, and competitors) account for these outcomes.

For instance, research during which non-digital, face-to-face video games had been used additionally confirmed constructive results on scholar engagement (Antunes, Pacheco, & Giovanela, 2012; Auman, 2011; Coffey, Miller, & Feuerstein, 2011; Crocco, Offenholley, & Hernandez, 2016; Poole, Kemp, Williams, & Patterson, 2014; Scarlet & Ampolos, 2013); subsequently, it’s unclear if and the way digitizing video games contributes to scholar engagement.

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