Auditing – Trading Transactions

Vouching of Purchase Book

The major purpose behind the vouching of purchase book is to confirm that every purchase bill is entered in purchase book and the invoices entered in purchase book are against the actually received goods and payment is made for those actual purchases.

We will further discuss the main duties of an Auditor concerning the vouching of credit purchases.

Internal Control for Purchase

The Auditor has to study the adequacy of internal control system in an organization. Normal internal control system for purchases is given below −

  • Department which requires material or store department will send purchase requisition to the purchase department after getting it signed by the head of the department. Quality and quantity of the required material should be clearly mentioned on the requisition.
  • After getting authorized requisition from the store or other department, the purchase department will invite quotations from different suppliers; the purchase department will then choose the best price quotation with the best quality products.
  • A purchase order will be issued to the supplier of goods who is ready to supply the goods on most favorable terms and conditions. One copy of the purchase order will be sent to the supplier of goods, the second one to the store department, the third one to the accounts department and the fourth one to goods receiving department, and one copy will be retained by the purchase department itself.
  • On receiving the goods, the Material Receipt Note (MRN) will be issued by the goods receiving department after the checking and verification of quantity, price and quality of material of goods with purchase order. The material along with the Material Receipt Note will be sent to the store department, one copy each of MRN will be sent to the accounts department and the purchase department.
  • After the verification of the purchase invoice and the MRN, the accounts department will pass the bill for payment and the payment will be done by the accounts department according to the payment terms.

The Auditor has to verify the complete internal control system as stated above.

Duties of Auditor

The Auditor has to check and verify the following −

  • Record of all purchase orders.
  • Verification of quantity, price and payment terms of purchase invoice with purchase orders.
  • Verification about whether goods actually received.
  • Verification about proper recording of purchase bill in purchase book.
  • Goods purchase should be for business purpose only, not for any personal use of any partner, director or officer of the company.
  • The Auditor should verify the statements of accounts of suppliers.

Vouching of Purchase Return Book

There are times when due to the quality of purchase goods or due to excess supply of ordered goods or any other reasons, goods are returned back to supplier. The Auditor needs to verify the following points −

  • A debit note or purchase return invoice should be prepared mentioning the original purchase invoice number, quantity, price, applicable taxes, etc. These should be according to the original purchase invoice against which material was purchased.
  • A corresponding credit note should be received from the supplier.
  • Separate goods return book should be maintained.
  • Adjustment of the amount of goods return invoice should be done while making payments to the supplier.

Vouching of Goods sent on Consignment Basis

Consider the following points for the vouching of Goods Sent on Consignment Basis −

  • Goods sent on consignment basis by the principle to his agent are not a sale.
  • Entry of sale should be made only when goods are actually sold by the agent.
  • At the time of valuation of stock of principle (Consignor), unsold goods lying at the godown of agent (Consignee) should also be considered as stock.
  • Separate books for goods sent on consignment should be maintained by the consignor.
  • At the end of the year, the consignee sends a statement showing the goods received, during the year, goods sold and the unsold stock at the end of the year.
  • Auditor should verify the proforma invoice, goods outward register, etc.

Vouching of Credit Sale

Most of the sales are made on credit basis and the internal control system for the same is given below −

Internal Control for Credit Sale

  • A separate sale order register should be maintained showing the detail of goods ordered, name of the customer, order number, quantity ordered, schedule time for dispatch, price, mode of delivery, payment terms, particulars of taxes and insurance. The sales order needs to entered in the register as soon as it is received.
  • Sale order will send to dispatch department.
  • Dispatch department will arrange material to be sent to customer.
  • On the basis of sale order and dispatch challan, sale invoice is issued.
  • Sales invoices need to be entered both in the outward register and also the sales book.
  • Payment will be received according to the payment terms.

Duties of Auditor

  • An Auditor should verify the complete internal control system of sale as described above.
  • The sale invoice should check with sale order.
  • Sale register will check through sale invoices.
  • Sale of capital goods should not be recorded in sale account.
  • Calculation of sale invoice should be check in case of manual invoicing.
  • Accounting for taxes should be in separate account like excise duty, service tax, VAT, Central Sales Tax, etc.
  • No sale invoice should be unrecorded in the sales book.
  • Only the sales of the current year should be recorded for the current year.
  • Cancelled invoices should be kept separate for verification of Auditor.
  • No separate entry for trade discount should be passed; it should be adjusted in the sales value.

Vouching of Sales Return

There may be many reasons for return of sold goods by the customers. Few of them are wrong supply of material, excess quantity or below standard quality, etc. The Auditor should carefully check the following −

  • Separate sale return register should be maintained for sale return.
  • Credit note should be issued after obtaining proper sanction from the responsible officer.
  • Goods inward register should be checked.
  • The reason for return of goods should be analyzed.
  • Date of return of goods should be verified with debit or credit note, goods inward register.
  • Store records should be checked.
  • Customer account should be credited with the sale return amount.
  • At the time of valuation of the closing stock, returned goods should be valued at “cost or market price whichever is low.”

Goods Sold on Sale or Return Basis

Most of the online shopping companies are doing their business on Sale or return basis. Customer books their online order, on the basis of order goods are send to customer through courier or transport, customer receive the goods and make payment to courier boy or he may return the goods immediately just after opening the parcel in case if he is not satisfied. Even after accepting the delivery of goods and making payment of it, the customer is normally allowed to return the goods in the stipulated time (mostly 15 days), in case he is not satisfied with the quality of the product.

The Auditor should carefully verify all processes and documentation on the basis of above and consider the following points −

  • Sale invoice can be raised only after the confirmation is received from the customer or after expiry of the stipulated time.
  • Goods sent on sale or return basis should be considered as closing stock if the approval of sale is not received or stipulated time is not expired.
  • Copy of sale invoice will be send to customer.

Goods Sold on Hire Purchase System

Consider the following points while vouching for a Hire Purchase Sale −

  • Goods sold on hire purchase price which is cost + profit.
  • Payment is receivable in the installments.
  • Profit on hire purchase sale can be book only on the basis of installment actually released.
  • Provision for profit in the Balance sheet should be made on the basis of pending installments.
  • Amount of such provision will be deducted from the debtors account.

Forward Sale

If there is an agreement between the seller and the buyer for sale of specific quantity of good on any future date, it is called forward sale. The Auditor should verify that sale cannot be booked before such date and without dispatching goods to the customer. In case of partial delivery, profit may be booked partially on the basis of actual sale.

Sale of By-Products

By-product is automatically produced at the time of manufacturing or production of any main product is called by-product. For example, Mustard cake is by-product of mustard oil. Sale may be treated separately if volume of sale of by-products is high or it may be reduced from cost of the product. According to nature and volume of industry Auditor can set an intelligent audit Program after discussing with the management.

Sale of Scrap

Scrap is produced during the manufacturing of product in the normal course of production. Scrap is a saleable item and sold to scrap vendor, who deals with it. The Auditor should verify the storage condition, the volume of scrap actually produced, the quotations from the scrap vendors, the quantity sold, the taxes applicable and the payment received.

Vouching of Journal Book

In addition to cash book, purchase book, sale book, purchase return and sales return book, the following entries are recorded in the journal book −

  • Opening and closing entries
  • Various provision for Taxes and doubtful debts
  • Provision for depreciation
  • Interest received and interest paid
  • Transfer entries and adjustment entries
  • Allotment of shares, Shares calls, forfeitures and reissue of forfeited shares
  • Sale and purchase of assets
  • Entries of bills receivable, bills payable and dishonour of bills

There are many chances of committing frauds by any senior official through these entries, Therefore, Auditor should be very careful while auditing journal transactions and should call for every documentary evidence as and when he require during his audit.

Other Important Aspects

The Auditor should always be careful, while auditing a trading transaction. Following points need to be considered for the same −

Stock in Trade

Correctness and verification of stock-in-trade is of great importance in any industry. The closing stock of a year becomes opening stock of the next year, hence constant check on it is very important. Opening stock + purchase – sale should be equal to the closing stock. This equation might be true, if there is any difference due to any reason, the Auditor should check and verify the reason behind it. Following points need to be considered while checking and verifying the stock in trade.

  • Sample to customer and the loss of stock during processing, loading, unloading, fire and leakage, etc.
  • Sale or purchase in transit.
  • Sale return still excluded in stock and purchase return included in stock.
  • Non adjustment of goods received or sent on the sale or return basis.

Stock is valued on the basis of physical verification at the end of the year and should reconcile with the book balance. There must be effective internal control system to control the stock in trade.

Capital and Revenue Items

The Auditor should always be careful about distinction between capital and revenue items otherwise profit of the concern will be overvalued or undervalued and the financial results will not present true and fair view of the organization.

Current Assets and Fictitious Assets

Over valuation of current assets will represent higher profit and vice-versa; for example, the inclusion of bad debts in debtor account. Fictitious assets of no value should be written off like patents or trademark of no use.

The Auditor should ensure that current assets and fictitious assets should be valued at actual otherwise profit will understated or overstated.