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What is dark matter?

What is dark matter? About 80 percent of the world’s mass is made up of material that scientists cannot directly observe. This strange substance, known as dark matter, does not emit light or energy. So why do […]

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What is a black hole?

Black holes are places in space where even light cannot escape due to their high gravitational force. The reason for the very high force of gravity in a black hole is that matter is compressed inside […]

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What is Orbiter Waste?

What is Orbiter Waste? Most orbital debris is in near-Earth orbit, where the space station is moving. Orbital debris, sometimes called space debris, is scrap metal that orbits the earth or can be pieces of […]

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What is a star?

What is going on in the sky? When you look at the night sky, you see different objects. For example, you may see the moon. Sometimes you may see bright spots that do not shine like stars. These […]

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Ten facts about Mars

Mars is named after the god of Roman warfare and is known in English as Mars. Perhaps the main reason for such a name is the red color of the planet. Mars is sometimes called the Red […]

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History of gravitational waves

Our understanding of gravity has changed dramatically, from Newton’s equations to Einstein’s general relativity. These days, due to the discovery of gravitational waves, in this useful and readable article we want to see how our understanding […]

Forex Trading

Statistics – Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is the square root of the average of squared deviations of the items from their mean. Symbolically it is represented by σσ. We’re going to discuss methods to compute the Standard deviation for three types of […]

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Auditing Tutorial

The main objective of auditing is to ensure the financial reliability of any organization. Independent opinion and judgement form the objectives of auditing. Auditing also helps to ensure that the books of accounts are kept […]

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Auditing – Introduction

The origin of auditing can be traced to Italy. Around the year 1494, Luca Paciolo introduced the double entry system of bookkeeping and described the duties and responsibilities of an Auditor. Auditing in India has […]

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Auditing – Basic Principles

Planning An Auditor should plan his work to complete his work efficiently and well within time. To plan work accordingly, an Auditor handles the following − Accounting system and policies. Internal control system of organization. […]

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Auditing – Advantages

Following are the main advantages of auditing for different stakeholders − For the Owner and Shareholders Sole proprietor of a business and partners of firm can rely and depend on audited financial statements. Auditing is […]

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Auditing – Limitations

Following are a few limitations of auditing − Rely on Experts − An Auditor has to rely on experts like engineers, valuers and lawyers for estimation and valuation of fixed assets and estimation of contingent […]

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Auditing – Classifications

In this chapter, we will learn the various types/classes of Audit and their basis. The following table lists out the different types of audit. Basis Types Scope Specific Audit − Cash audit, Cost audit, Standard […]

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Auditing – Audit Planning

Audit planning is required for an Auditor to conduct an effective and efficient audit. Target of audit planning should be about the following − Time budgets Recruitment of audit staff Schedule about date of audit […]