Computer Glossary

Computer Glossary


A small Java software that’s downloaded by an ActiveX or Java-enabled internet browser. As soon as it has been downloaded, the applet will run on the consumer’s laptop. Frequent applets embrace monetary calculators and internet drawing packages.


Pc software program that performs a process or set of duties, corresponding to phrase processing or drawing. Functions are additionally known as packages.


American Commonplace Code for Info Interchange, an encoding system for changing keyboard characters and directions into the binary quantity code that the pc understands.


The capability of a networked connection. Bandwidth determines how a lot knowledge might be despatched alongside the networked wires. Bandwidth is especially necessary for Web connections, since better bandwidth additionally means sooner downloads.

Binary code

Essentially the most primary language a pc understands, it’s composed of a collection of 0s and 1s. The pc interprets the code to kind numbers, letters, punctuation marks, and symbols.


The smallest piece of laptop data, both the quantity zero or 1. In brief they’re known as binary digits.


To begin up a pc. Chilly boot means restarting laptop after the ability is turned off. Heat boot means restarting laptop with out turning off the ability.


Software program used to navigate the Web. Google Chrome, Firefox, Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Web Explorer are at this time’s hottest browsers for accessing the World Large Internet.


A malfunction as a consequence of an error in this system or a defect within the gear.


Most computer systems use combos of eight bits, known as bytes, to symbolize one character of knowledge or directions. For instance, the phrase cat has three characters, and it will be represented by three bytes.


A small data-memory storage space that a pc can use to immediately re-access knowledge as an alternative of re-reading the info from the unique supply, corresponding to a tough drive. Browsers use a cache to retailer internet pages in order that the consumer could view them once more with out reconnecting to the Internet.


Pc Aided DrawingPc Aided Manufacturing. The directions saved in a pc that will likely be translated to very exact working directions to a robotic, corresponding to for assembling vehicles or laser-cutting signage.


Compact Disc Learn-Solely Reminiscence, an optically learn disc designed to carry data corresponding to music, reference supplies, or laptop software program. A single CD-ROM can maintain round 640 megabytes of knowledge, sufficient for a number of encyclopaedias. Most software program packages are actually delivered on CD-ROMs.


Frequent Gateway Interface, a programming normal that permits guests to fill out kind fields on a Internet web page and have that data work together with a database, probably coming again to the consumer as one other Internet web page. CGI can also check with Pc-Generated Imaging, the method during which refined laptop packages create nonetheless and animated graphics, corresponding to particular results for motion pictures.


Typing textual content right into a message field on a display to interact in dialogue with a number of individuals by way of the Web or different community.


A tiny wafer of silicon containing miniature electrical circuits that may retailer tens of millions of bits of data.


A single consumer of a community software that’s operated from a server. A consumer/server structure permits many individuals to make use of the identical knowledge concurrently. This system’s primary element (the info) resides on a centralized server, with smaller elements (consumer interface) on every consumer.


A textual content file despatched by a Internet server that’s saved on the exhausting drive of a pc and relays again to the Internet server issues in regards to the consumer, his or her laptop, and/or his or her laptop actions.


Central Processing Unit. The mind of the pc.


An individual who breaks in to a pc via a community, with out authorization and with mischievous or harmful intent.


A {hardware} or software program drawback that causes data to be misplaced or the pc to malfunction. Generally a crash could cause everlasting harm to a pc.


A transferring position-indicator displayed on a pc monitor that exhibits a pc operator the place the following motion or operation will happen.

Our on-line world

Slang for web ie. A world conglomeration of interconnected laptop networks. Begun within the late 1960s, it was developed within the 1970s to permit authorities and college researchers to share data. The Web is just not managed by any single group or group. Its authentic focus was analysis and communications, but it surely continues to broaden, providing a big selection of sources for enterprise and residential customers.


A group of comparable data saved in a file, corresponding to a database of addresses. This data could also be created and saved in a database administration system (DBMS).


Slang. To search out and proper gear defects or program malfunctions.


The pre-defined configuration of a system or an software. In most packages, the defaults might be modified to replicate private preferences.


The principle listing of the consumer interface. Desktops often comprise icons that symbolize hyperlinks to the exhausting drive, a community (if there may be one), and a trash or recycling can for recordsdata to be deleted. It might probably additionally show icons of often used functions, as requested by the consumer.

Desktop publishing

The manufacturing of publication-quality paperwork utilizing a private laptop together with textual content, graphics, and web page format packages.


A repository the place all recordsdata are stored on laptop.


Two distinct varieties. The names check with the media contained in the container:

A tough disc shops huge quantities of knowledge. It’s often inside the pc however could be a separate peripheral on the surface. Onerous discs are made up of a number of inflexible coated steel discs. At present, exhausting discs can retailer 15 to 30 Gb (gigabytes).

A floppy disc, 3.5″ sq., often inserted into the pc and might retailer about 1.four megabytes of knowledge. The three.5″ sq. floppies have a really skinny, versatile disc inside. There’s additionally an intermediate-sized floppy disc, trademarked Zip discs, which may retailer 250 megabytes of knowledge.

Disk drive

The gear that operates a tough or floppy disc.


Represents an IP (Web Protocol) deal with or set of IP addresses that comprise a website. The area title seems in URLs to determine internet pages or in electronic mail addresses. For instance, the e-mail deal with for the First Woman is,, being the area title. Every area title ends with a suffix that signifies what high stage area it belongs to. These are : .com for industrial, .gov for presidency, .org for group, .edu for academic establishment, .biz for enterprise, .information for data, .television for tv, .ws for web site. Area suffixes can also point out the nation during which the area is registered. No two events can ever maintain the identical area title.

Area title

The title of a community or laptop linked to the Web. Domains are outlined by a typical IP deal with or set of comparable IP (Web Protocol) addresses.


The method of transferring data from a website online (or different distant location on a community) to the pc. It’s doable to obtain a file which embrace textual content, picture, audio, video and lots of others.


Disk Working System. An working system designed for early IBM-compatible PCs.

Drop-down menu

A menu window that opens vertically on-screen to show context-related choices. Additionally known as pop-up menu or pull-down menu.


Digital Subscriber Line, a way of connecting to the Web by way of a cellphone line. A DSL connection makes use of copper phone traces however is ready to relay knowledge at a lot greater speeds than modems and doesn’t intervene with phone use.


Digital Video Disc. Much like a CD-ROM, it shops and performs each audio and video.


An digital (often hand-held) studying gadget that permits an individual to view digitally saved studying supplies.

Electronic mail

Email correspondence; messages, together with memos or letters, despatched electronically between networked computer systems that could be throughout the workplace or world wide.


A text-based expression of emotion created from ASCII characters that mimics a facial features when seen along with your head tilted to the left. Listed below are some examples:

  • Smiling
  • Frowning
  • Winking
  • Crying


The method of transmitting scrambled knowledge in order that solely licensed recipients can unscramble it. As an illustration, encryption is used to scramble bank card data when purchases are remodeled the Web.


A sort of community.

Ethernet card

A board inside a pc to which a community cable might be hooked up.


A set of knowledge that’s saved within the laptop.


A set of safety packages that defend a pc from exterior interference or entry by way of the Web.


A construction for holding digital recordsdata. In some working techniques, it’s known as a listing.


Units of typefaces (or characters) that come in several shapes and sizes.


Software program created by people who find themselves keen to present it away for the satisfaction of sharing or realizing they helped to simplify different individuals’s lives. It could be free-standing software program, or it might add performance to current software program.


File Switch Protocol, a format and algorithm for transferring recordsdata from a bunch to a distant laptop.

Gigabyte (GB)

1024 megabytes. Additionally known as gig.


The reason for an surprising malfunction.


An Web search instrument that permits customers to entry textual data via a collection of menus, or if utilizing FTP, via downloads.


Graphical Consumer Interface, a system that simplifies choosing laptop instructions by enabling the consumer to level to symbols or illustrations (known as icons) on the pc display with a mouse.


Software program that permits networked people to kind teams and collaborate on paperwork, packages, or databases.


An individual with technical experience who experiments with laptop techniques to find out methods to develop further options. Hackers are often requested by system directors to try to break into techniques by way of a community to check safety. The time period hacker is usually incorrectly used interchangeably with cracker. A hacker known as a white hat and a cracker a black hat.

Onerous copy

A paper printout of what you will have ready on the pc.

Onerous drive

One other title for the exhausting disc that shops data in a pc.


The bodily and mechanical elements of a pc system, such because the digital circuitry, chips, monitor, disks, disk drives, keyboard, modem, and printer.

Dwelling web page

The principle web page of a Website used to greet guests, present details about the location, or to direct the viewer to different pages on the location.


Hypertext Markup Language, a normal of textual content markup conventions used for paperwork on the World Large Internet. Browsers interpret the codes to present the textual content construction and formatting (corresponding to daring, blue, or italic).


Hypertext Switch Protocol, a typical system used to request and ship HTML paperwork on the World Large Internet. It’s the first portion of all URL addresses on the World Large Internet.


Hypertext Switch Protocol Safe, typically utilized in intracompany web websites. Passwords are required to realize entry.


Textual content or a picture that’s related by hypertext coding to a special location. By choosing the textual content or picture with a mouse, the pc jumps to (or shows) the linked textual content.


Integrates audio, graphics, and/or video via hyperlinks embedded in the principle program.


A system for organizing textual content via hyperlinks, versus a menu-driven hierarchy corresponding to Gopher. Most Internet pages embrace hypertext hyperlinks to different pages at that website, or to different websites on the World Large Internet.


Symbols or illustrations showing on the pc display that point out program recordsdata or different laptop features.


Knowledge that goes into a pc gadget.

Enter gadget

A tool, corresponding to a keyboard, stylus and pill, mouse, puck, or microphone, that permits enter of data (letters, numbers, sound, video) to a pc.

Instantaneous messaging (IM)

A chat software that permits two or extra individuals to speak over the Web by way of real-time keyed-in messages.


The interconnections that permit a tool, a program, or an individual to work together. {Hardware} interfaces are the cables that join the gadget to its energy supply and to different gadgets. Software program interfaces permit this system to speak with different packages (such because the working system), and consumer interfaces permit the consumer to speak with this system (e.g., by way of mouse, menu instructions, icons, voice instructions, and so forth.).


A world conglomeration of interconnected laptop networks. Begun within the late 1960s, it was developed within the 1970s to permit authorities and college researchers to share data. The Web is just not managed by any single group or group. Its authentic focus was analysis and communications, but it surely continues to broaden, providing a big selection of sources for enterprise and residential customers.

IP (Web Protocol) deal with

An Web Protocol deal with is a novel set of numbers used to find one other laptop on a community. The format of an IP deal with is a 32-bit string of 4 numbers separated by intervals. Every quantity might be from zero to 255 (i.e., Inside a closed community IP addresses could also be assigned at random, nonetheless, IP addresses of internet servers should be registered to keep away from duplicates.


An object-oriented programming language designed particularly for packages (notably multimedia) for use over the Web. Java permits programmers to create small packages or functions (applets) to boost Web pages.

JavaScript/ECMA script

A programming language used nearly completely to govern content material on an internet web page. Frequent JavaScript features embrace validating kinds on an internet web page, creating dynamic web page navigation menus, and picture rollovers.

Kilobyte (Okay or KB)

Equal to 1,024 bytes.


A UNIX – like, open-source working system developed primarily by Linus Torvalds. Linux is free and runs on many platforms, together with each PCs and Macintoshes. Linux is an open-source working system, which means that the supply code of the working system is freely out there to the general public. Programmers could redistribute and modify the code, so long as they do not gather royalties on their work or deny entry to their code. Since growth is just not restricted to a single company extra programmers can debug and enhance the supply code sooner.

Laptop computer and pocket book

Small, light-weight, moveable battery-powered computer systems that may match onto your lap. They every have a skinny, flat, liquid crystal show display.


A script that operates a collection of instructions to carry out a perform. It’s set as much as automate repetitive duties.

Mac OS

An working system with a graphical consumer interface, developed by Apple for Macintosh computer systems. Present System X.1.(10) combines the normal Mac interface with a powerful underlying UNIX. Working system for elevated efficiency and stability.

Megabyte (MB)

Equal to 1,048,576 bytes, often rounded off to at least one million bytes (additionally known as a meg).


Short-term storage for data, together with functions and paperwork. The data should be saved to a everlasting gadget, corresponding to a tough disc or CD-ROM earlier than the ability is turned off, or the data will likely be misplaced. Pc reminiscence is measured when it comes to the quantity of data it might probably retailer, generally in megabytes or gigabytes.


A context-related record of choices that customers can select from.

Menu bar

The horizontal strip throughout the highest of an software’s window. Every phrase on the strip has a context delicate drop-down menu containing options and actions which might be out there for the applying in use.


To mix two or extra recordsdata right into a single file.


An abbreviation for Megahertz, or a million hertz. One MHz represents a million clock cycles per second and is the measure of a pc microprocessor’s velocity. For instance, a microprocessor that runs at 300 MHz executes 300 million cycles per second. Every instruction a pc receives takes a set variety of clock cycles to hold out, due to this fact the extra cycles a pc can execute per second, the sooner its packages run. Megahertz can be a unit of measure for bandwidth.


A whole central processing unit (CPU) contained on a single silicon chip.


A time period utilized in a GUI working system that makes use of home windows. It refers to lowering a window to an icon, or a label on the backside of the display, permitting one other window to be seen.


A tool that connects two computer systems collectively over a phone or cable line by changing the pc’s knowledge into an audio sign. Modem is a contraction for the method it performs : modulate-demodulate.


A video show terminal.


A small hand-held gadget, much like a trackball, used to manage the place of the cursor on the video show; actions of the mouse on a desktop correspond to actions of the cursor on the display.


Compact audio and video file format. The small measurement of the recordsdata makes them simple to obtain and e-mail. Format utilized in moveable playback gadgets.


Software program packages that mix textual content and graphics with sound, video, and animation. A multimedia PC accommodates the {hardware} to help these capabilities.


An early working system developed by Microsoft Company (Microsoft Disc Working System).


A system of interconnected computer systems.

Open supply

Pc packages whose authentic supply code was revealed to most people in order that it might be developed overtly. Software program licensed as open supply might be freely modified or tailored to new makes use of, which means that the supply code of the working system is freely out there to the general public. Programmers could redistribute and modify the code, so long as they do not gather royalties on their work or deny entry to their code. Since growth is just not restricted to a single company extra programmers can debug and enhance the supply code sooner.

Working system

A set of directions that inform a pc on methods to function when it’s turned on. It units up a submitting system to retailer recordsdata and tells the pc methods to show data on a video show. Most PC working techniques are DOS (disc operated system) techniques, which means the directions are saved on a disc (versus being initially saved within the microprocessors of the pc). Different well-known working techniques embrace UNIX, Linux, Macintosh, and Home windows.


Knowledge that come out of a pc gadget. For instance, data displayed on the monitor, sound from the audio system, and data printed to paper.


A hand-held laptop.


Private laptop. Typically refers to computer systems operating Home windows with a Pentium processor.

PC board

Printed Circuit board, a board printed or etched with a circuit and processors. Energy provides, data storage gadgets, or changers are hooked up.


Private Digital Assistant, a hand-held laptop that may retailer each day appointments, cellphone numbers, addresses, and different necessary data. Most PDAs hyperlink to a desktop or laptop computer laptop to obtain or add data.


Transportable Doc Format, a format offered by Adobe Acrobat that permits paperwork to be shared over a wide range of working techniques. Paperwork can comprise phrases and footage and be formatted to have digital hyperlinks to different elements of the doc or to locations on the internet.

Pentium chip

Intel’s fifth era of refined high-speed microprocessors. Pentium means the fifth component.


Any exterior gadget hooked up to a pc to boost operation. Examples embrace exterior exhausting drive, scanner, printer, audio system, keyboard, mouse, trackball, stylus and pill, and joystick.

Private laptop (PC)

A single-user laptop containing a central processing unit (CPU) and a number of reminiscence circuits.


A measure of reminiscence or storage capability and is roughly a thousand terabytes.


A theoretical measure of a pc’s velocity and might be expressed as a thousand-trillion floating-point operations per second.


The working system, corresponding to UNIX, Macintosh, Home windows, on which a pc relies.

Plug and play

Pc {hardware} or peripherals that come arrange with mandatory software program in order that when hooked up to a pc, they’re acknowledged by the pc and are prepared to make use of.

Pop-up menu

A menu window that opens vertically or horizontally on-screen to show context-related choices. Additionally known as drop-down menu or pull-down menu.

Energy PC

A competitor of the Pentium chip. It’s a new era of highly effective refined microprocessors produced from an Apple-IBM-Motorola alliance.


A mechanical gadget for printing a pc’s output on paper. There are three main varieties of printer:

  • Dot matrix – creates particular person letters, made up of a collection of tiny ink dots, by punching a ribbon with the ends of tiny wires. (This kind of printer is most frequently utilized in industrial settings, corresponding to junk mail for labelling.)
  • Ink jet – sprays tiny droplets of ink particles onto paper.
  • Laser – makes use of a beam of sunshine to breed the picture of every web page utilizing a magnetic cost that pulls dry toner that’s transferred to paper and sealed with warmth.


A exact collection of directions written in a pc language that tells the pc what to do and methods to do it. Packages are additionally known as software program or functions.

Programming language

A collection of directions written by a programmer in keeping with a given algorithm or conventions (syntax). Excessive-level programming languages are impartial of the gadget on which the applying (or program) will finally run; low-level languages are particular to every program or platform. Programming language directions are transformed into packages in language particular to a specific machine or working system (machine language). In order that the pc can interpret and perform the directions. Some frequent programming languages are BASIC, C, C++, dBASE, FORTRAN, and Perl.


An enter gadget, like a mouse. It has a magnifying glass with crosshairs on the entrance of it that permits the operator to place it exactly when tracing a drawing to be used with CAD-CAM software program.

Pull-down menu

A menu window that opens vertically on-screen to show context-related choices. Additionally known as drop-down menu or pop-up menu.

Push know-how

Web instrument that delivers particular data on to a consumer’s desktop, eliminating the necessity to surf for it. PointCast, which delivers information in user-defined classes, is a well-liked instance of this know-how.


Audio-visual software program that permits movie-delivery by way of the Web and e-mail. QuickTime photographs are seen on a monitor.


Redundant Array of Cheap Disks, a way of spreading data throughout a number of disks set as much as act as a unit, utilizing two totally different strategies:

  • Disk striping – storing a bit of data throughout a number of discs (as an alternative of storing all of it on one disc and hoping that the disc does not crash).
  • Disk mirroring – concurrently storing a duplicate of data on one other disc in order that the data might be recovered if the principle disc crashes.


Random Entry Reminiscence, one in all two primary varieties of reminiscence. Parts of packages are saved in RAM when this system is launched in order that this system will run sooner. Although a PC has a set quantity of RAM, solely parts of it is going to be accessed by the pc at any given time. Additionally known as reminiscence.


Utilizing the proper mouse button to open context-sensitive drop-down menus.


Learn-Solely Reminiscence, one in all two primary varieties of reminiscence. ROM accommodates solely everlasting data put there by the producer. Info in ROM can’t be altered, nor can the reminiscence be dynamically allotted by the pc or its operator.


An digital gadget that makes use of light-sensing gear to scan paper photographs corresponding to textual content, photographs, and illustrations and translate the pictures into indicators that the pc can then retailer, modify, or distribute.

Search engine

Software program that makes it doable to search for and retrieve materials on the Web, notably the Internet. Some standard search engines like google and yahoo are Alta Vista, Google, HotBot, Yahoo!, Internet Crawler, and Lycos.


A pc that shares its sources and data with different computer systems, known as shoppers, on a community.


Software program created by people who find themselves keen to promote it at low value or no value for the gratification of sharing. It could be freestanding software program, or it might add performance to current software program.

Software program

Pc packages; additionally known as functions.


A course of search engines like google and yahoo use to analyze new pages on a website online and gather the data that must be put of their indices.


Software program that permits one to calculate numbers in a format that’s much like pages in a standard ledger.


Units used to retailer huge quantities of data in order that it may be readily retrieved. Units embrace RAIDs, CD-ROMs, DVDs.


Taking packets of data (sound or visible) from the Web and storing it in momentary recordsdata to permit it to play in steady move.

Stylus and pill

An enter gadget much like a mouse. The stylus is pen formed. It’s used to attract on a pill (like drawing on paper) and the pill transfers the data to the pc. The pill responds to stress. The firmer the stress used to attract, the thicker the road seems.


Exploring the Web.

Surge protector

A controller to guard the pc and make up for variances in voltage.


A solution to talk with a distant laptop over a community.


Enter gadget that controls the place of the cursor on the display; the unit is mounted close to the keyboard, and motion is managed by transferring a ball.

Terabytes (TB)

A thousand gigabytes.


A measure of a pc’s velocity. It may be expressed as a trillion floating-point operations per second.


A really highly effective working system used as the idea of many high-end laptop functions.


The method of transferring data from a pc to a website online (or different distant location on a community). To switch data from a pc to a website online (or different distant location on a community).


Uniform Useful resource Locator.

  • The protocol for figuring out a doc on the Internet.
  • A Internet deal with (e.g., A URL is exclusive to every consumer. See additionally area.


Common Energy Provide or Uninterruptible Energy Provide. {An electrical} energy provide that features a battery to offer sufficient energy to a pc throughout an outage to back-up knowledge and correctly shut down.


A multiple-socket USB connector that permits a number of USB-compatible gadgets to be related to a pc.


A big unmoderated and unedited bulletin board on the Web that provides 1000’s of boards, known as newsgroups. These vary from newsgroups exchanging data on scientific advances to movie star fan golf equipment.

Consumer pleasant

A program or gadget whose use is intuitive to individuals with a non-technical background.

Video teleconferencing

A distant “face-to-face chat,” when two or extra individuals utilizing a webcam and an Web phone connection chat on-line. The webcam allows each dwell voice and video.

Digital actuality (VR)

A know-how that permits one to expertise and work together with photographs in a simulated three-dimensional setting. For instance, you might design a room in a home in your laptop and truly really feel that you’re strolling round in it though it was by no means constructed. (The Holodeck within the science-fiction TV collection Star Trek : Voyager can be the last word digital actuality.) Present know-how requires the consumer to put on a particular helmet, viewing goggles, gloves, and different gear that transmits and receives data from the pc.


An unauthorized piece of laptop code hooked up to a pc program or parts of a pc system that secretly copies itself from one laptop to a different by shared discs and over phone and cable traces. It might probably destroy data saved on the pc, and in excessive circumstances, can destroy operability. Computer systems might be shielded from viruses if the operator makes use of good virus prevention software program and retains the virus definitions updated. Most viruses are usually not programmed to unfold themselves. They must be despatched to a different laptop by e-mail, sharing, or functions.The worm is an exception, as a result of it’s programmed to duplicate itself by sending copies to different computer systems listed within the e-mail deal with guide within the laptop. There are various sorts of viruses, for instance:

  • Boot viruses place a few of their code within the start-up disk sector to robotically execute when booting. Due to this fact, when an contaminated machine boots, the virus hundreds and runs.
  • File viruses hooked up to program recordsdata (recordsdata with the extension .exe). While you run the contaminated program, the virus code executes.
  • Macro viruses copy their macros to templates and/or different software doc recordsdata.
  • Trojan Horse is a malicious, security-breaking program that’s disguised as one thing being corresponding to a display saver or recreation.
  • Worm launches an software that destroys data in your exhausting drive. It additionally sends a duplicate of the virus to everybody within the laptop’s e-mail deal with guide.


A sound format (pronounced wave) used to breed sounds on a pc.


A video digicam/laptop setup that takes dwell photographs and sends them to a Internet browser.


A portion of a pc show utilized in a graphical interface that allows customers to pick out instructions by pointing to illustrations or symbols with a mouse. “Home windows” can be the title Microsoft adopted for its standard working system.

World Large Internet (“WWW” or “the Internet”)

A community of servers on the Web that use hypertext-linked databases and recordsdata. It was developed in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a British laptop scientist, and is now the first platform of the Web. The function that distinguishes the Internet from different Web functions is its potential to show graphics along with textual content.

Phrase processor

A pc system or program for setting, modifying, revising, correcting, storing, and printing textual content.


What You See Is What You Get. When utilizing most phrase processors, web page format packages (See desktop publishing), and internet web page design packages, phrases and pictures will likely be displayed on the monitor as they’ll look on the printed web page or internet web page.