Environmental Studies - Soil Pollution

Environmental Studies – Soil Pollution

Soil pollution refers to an undesirable decrease in the quality of soil, either by man-induced sources or natural sources or by both.

Soil is vital not only for the growth of plants and growing food but also cultivating raw materials for agro-based industries. Health soil is a significant prerequisite for human survival.

Causes of Soil Erosion

  • Deforestation at large scale
  • Over-grazing
  • Mining
  • Decrease in soil microorganisms
  • Excessive use of chemical fertilizers
  • Excessive use of irrigation
  • Lack of humus content
  • Improper and unscientific rotation of crops

Soil pollution leads to many harmful consequences such as decrease in agricultural production; reduced nitrogen fixation; reduction in biodiversity; silting of tanks, lakes and reservoirs; diseases and deaths of consumers in the food chain due to use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, etc.

Soil Pollution Control

  • Adoption of soil-friendly agricultural practices.
  • Use of compost manures in place of chemical fertilizers; Use of bio-fertilizers and natural pesticides help in minimizing the usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides
  • Scientific rotation of crop to increase soil fertility.
  • Proper disposal of industrial and urban solid and liquid wastes.
  • Planting of trees to check soil erosion in slopes and mountainous regions.
  • Controlled grazing.
  • Reduction in the heaps of garbage and refuse.
  • The principles of three R’s − Recycle, Reuse, and Reduce − help in minimizing generation of solid waste.
  • Formulation and effective implementation of stringent pollution control legislation.
  • Improved sewage and sanitation system in urban areas.