Water pollution may be defined as alteration in physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water, which may cause harmful effects on human and aquatic life.
Pollutants of Water
Following are some of the reasons for water pollution.
- Disposal of sewage and sludge into water bodies such as river, streams, and lakes.
- Inorganic compounds and minerals by mining and industrial activities.
- Use of chemical fertilizers for agricultural purposes.
- Synthetic organic compounds from industrial, agricultural, and domestic garbage.
- Oil and petroleum from tankers’ accident, offshore drilling, combustion engine, etc.
- Radioactive wastes
Water Pollution Control
- Environmental Education − Individuals and the masses should be educated about the significance of quality of water and its impact on the economy, the society, and ecology.
- Sewage Treatment − The household water should be treated properly to make it environmentally safe. Necessary steps should be taken to ensure that effective sewage treatment process is put in place and contaminated water doesn’t get mixed with the fresh water bodies.
- Accountability of Industrial Units − The industrial setups should make provisions for treatment of waste materials and water, and for its safe drainage.
- Afforestation − Planting trees can reduce the water pollution to a large extent as they check surface soil runoff by running water.
- Soil Conservation − Soil conservation add many inorganic substances in the surface and underground water. Soil conservation is, therefore, a useful technique to reduce water pollution.
- Reduced Use of Chemical Fertilizers − Chemical fertilizers add nitrates in water bodies. Use of compost manures can help reduce the problem of eutrophication in the water bodies.
- Financial Support − Governments should make provisions for adequate funds to the civic bodies for water pollution control.
- Legislation and Implementation of Stringent Environmental Laws − The need of the hour is that the government should legislate and implement strict environmental laws for the protection of water bodies, treatment of waste water, etc. The violators of such laws should be given exemplary punishment.