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development of WiFi networks
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development of WiFi networks

It hasn’t been long since cable was the only way to connect multiple computers to each other, but the world of computer networks, especially home networks, has undergone many changes; So now it is difficult and perhaps impossible to find a home or company without a router or access point. Wi-Fi removed cable and cabling difficulties and the hassle of connecting computers to each other, but brought with it new hassles.

New worries have now replaced worries such as cable routing, lack of connections in a room, and frequent outages. In some parts of the house, the Wi-Fi signals are weak, and for some tasks, the network speed drops sharply. The fact is that mobile phones, tablets, notebooks, desktops, game consoles, players and even TVs are connected to WiFi these days. This network has lost its proprietary functions and is more similar to a home entertainment network. So we need to get the most out of WiFi to make our entertainment more enjoyable. But how can we increase the speed and power of the WiFi network without much cost? How can we get the most out of WiFi?

Faster networks
We all use a wireless router when the WiFi is down or the output power is severely defective due to a problem. When you are slow or unable to connect to a wireless network, the source of the problem may be the router or network, not elsewhere. As you try to fix the problem, you can also look to improve the Wi-Fi network and upgrade its signals or speed. This means that sometimes WiFi works well and you connect to the Internet using smartphones, tablets and TVs, but you may be able to do this faster and easier with a few small tricks. Not all problems are with the router or access point; Sometimes you need to change the settings of networked devices or make improvements to them. 

Installation
Most ADSL routers and modems use one WAN port, four LAN ports, and one telephone port. These ports are usually lined up on the back panel of the device and are used to connect other devices to the router or modem and use an Ethernet network cable to install and set up the device. You can connect an ADSL modem to a router with a WAN port and use four Ethernet ports to connect other devices such as printers, NAS storage and the like. Some wireless routers have one or more external antennas, allowing the router and other devices to be flexibly adjusted to position. Some internal or external antennas of routers are equipped with a technology called “Beamforming” that allows you to increase the signal strength for devices with direct and direct connection. (figure 1) 

  Figure 1: Beamforming technology allows the router to send signals directly to specific devices and prevent the pervasive transmission of aimless signals.

Setting up wireless routers has become much easier in recent years than ever before, and they do not require the installation of special software or the use of an optical drive for the device or even startup programs. Many of the initial settings and configurations of the router have been done and it is enough to connect the power cable of the router and turn on the device so that after a few seconds the internet and wireless networks will start working. For most routers, the default Wi-Fi network name (SSID) and password are engraved on a label on the back of the device or in the product manual. (Figure 2) Of course, you can reconfigure the router and select a separate SSID and password for yourself. In terms of security, it is also recommended not to use the default SSID and password of WiFi devices, because in addition to you, the whole world has this information. 

  Figure 2: On the back of the router or access point, wireless network information such as SSID name and password is inserted.

To connect to the newly launched Wi-Fi network, all you have to do is click on the Wi-Fi icon from the taskbar on your Windows or Mac desktop, then select your router’s SSID and enter the default password. Sometimes you need to type and search for the SSID name for the first time so that the computer can identify the new WiFi network and communicate with the router. In mobile devices, the procedure for connecting to the WiFi network is the same; First select WiFi from the settings section, then select the desired SSID and enter the default password. Usually after a few seconds, the connection to the WiFi network is established. By default, the IP address you use to connect to the Internet is similar to 192.168.xxx.xxx. 

  Figure 3: Admin panel under web routers allows device settings and customization. 

Wireless routers or ADSL modems have been equipped with a web-based admin panel in recent years; This means that you do not need any special software to manage and configure the device settings, and it is enough to access this panel by entering the base IP address 192.168.1.1, 192.168.0.1 – or something similar – in the web browser address bar. (Figure 3) In the same label on the back of the device or the manual and the quick installation manual, this IP address is mentioned. When you enter the router admin panel, you can do the wireless network name, password and other settings. Remember to change your default username and password for the device admin panel. This information is usually admin / admin or admin / 1234, which is very dangerous to stay on the router and is a long-standing dream for any hacker or saboteur. 

Location of the router
Because most users use modems or routers and need to connect the telephone cable to the back of the device, the modem or router is located near the telephone sockets in the home or office and has some restrictions. However, try to place the router as close to the center of the room or conference room of your home or office as possible, stay away from corners and areas away from other rooms, and place the device close to a wall, partition, or anything sturdy. Do not block signals. The device must also be away from the ground; Multiple sides of the router must be open to be able to transmit and send signals in multiple directions. (Figure 4)
The best position for the router is in the center of the house, slightly below the ceiling and hanging in the air. If you have problems and limited access to a telephone line or network and Ethernet cable and the like, it is better to try to provide these for the router with a little expense and creativity, rather than taking the router with these devices. There are many tools and methods to move a telephone port in a room to the main hall or wall you want to prevent the cables from falling and falling to the ground. Powerline devices help you a lot in this regard. We will talk about these devices in detail in the following sections. 

  Figure 4: View of the best location for the router in the building. Pay attention to the center of this place and the distance of the walls and other spaces from it.

Avoid placing the router on the floor or in a corner of a desk in one room and using mobile devices in other rooms to connect to Wi-Fi. Sometimes you can build a much more powerful Wi-Fi network by purchasing a powerful router alongside a regular modem or router, and overcome the physical constraints of your position and the environment. You may live in a two-story building and have to install a modem or router on one floor. In this case, it is better to install the modem or router on the second floor and use the amplifier router or powerline, without any network cabling, WiFi and Internet to the first floor to use strong signals on both floors. If you live in an area where there are many obstacles and brick and concrete walls and you think that all the signal strength is taken, you will need several amplifiers. Of course, you do not have to buy and install amplifiers for every room. 

Signal Monitoring
In both Windows and Mac OS X, there are tools for checking the status of Wi-Fi network radio signals, measuring power, effective range, and performance. In Windows, when you click on the wireless network icon in the notifications section, you will see a list of available Wi-Fi networks, each with several lines indicating the signal strength, and of course the higher the number of lines, the better the Wi-Fi power and speed. . (Figure 5)

  Figure 5: In Windows 10, by clicking on the wireless network icon, you can see the power of each network and its signals from the number of bold lines.

On the Mac, a great tool is hidden in the System / Library / CoreServices path. This tool called “Wireless Diagnostics” is available from the Finder Go and Go To Folder lists (Command + Shift + G shortcut keys). After running this tool, click on the Window menu and select Utilities. Next you need to select the Performance tab. (Figure 6) Depending on which version of Mac you are using, you should see one or two graphs. These graphs show the strength of the signals relative to the ambient noise. Using this tool, you can easily evaluate changes in the location of the router and changes in signals to the environment and obstacles, and thus choose the best location. 

  Figure 6: On a Mac, the Wireless Diagnostics tool allows you to view the status of Wi-Fi networks. You can see the difference in signals and noise in these graphs and change the position of the wireless router accordingly.

Other peripherals are available for both Windows and Mac operating systems to help monitor the status of Wi-Fi network radio signals and then get the best performance by changing some settings or router location. One of these tools is “InSSIDer”, which is both free and supports 2.4 and 5 GHz radio channels, and provides additional information about many WiFi networks. (Figure 7) The goal should be to reduce the noise as much as possible and to create the maximum difference between the signals and the noise. Noise or environmental factors affecting network signals cause loss of quality and speed and disconnection, and are very annoying when you use wireless internet. Walls and physical barriers are not the only source of noise, and other radio and electronic equipment on site can be a source of vandalism in WiFi. 

  Figure 7: InSSIDer One of the best reporting tools is to view the status of Wi-Fi networks and the signal strength of each network. This free software gives you a lot of information about each WiFi.

Avoid overlapping radio channels
Wi-Fi and wireless routers exchange information over specific radio channels. Each operating frequency is divided into several separate radio operating channels with unique specifications, and the router must select one of these channels to send information. When the frequency band is low, radio channels may overlap or interfere with each other. For example, at 20 MHz, each radio channel may overlap five adjacent channels. Overlap is the worst factor in reducing the efficiency and strength of WiFi signals. On the 2.4 GHz operating frequency, there are only 12 radio channels and the available bandwidth is 20 and 40 MHz. Therefore, channels are likely to overlap, especially in environments with large numbers of active Wi-Fi routers, such as residential complexes or shopping malls. At five GHz, the situation is better, with 80 and 160 MHz bandwidth available, which provide both more channels and enough bandwidth for each channel to prevent interference and overlap. For this reason, the speed on the frequency of five GHz is higher and the performance of devices that are active on this frequency is much better than devices on the frequency of 2.4 GHz. There are several tricks to prevent overlapping radio channels that we mentioned in this article. 

WiFi development
In the previous sections, it was said that one of the ways to strengthen the Wi-Fi network after relocating the router and setting up radio channels is to develop Wi-Fi. Wi-Fi development can be done by upgrading the wireless router to a new standard of Wi-Fi networks or purchasing a second high-speed amplifier router alongside the previous modem or router. The simplest and most effective way to develop a WiFi network is to upgrade the router. You may still be using an 802.11b or 802.11g or even 802.11n router. All of these standards are outdated, and the first two standards are completely obsolete. The new standard is 802.11ac Wi-Fi networks, which allow both multi-gigabit speeds on Wi-Fi and use simultaneous dual-band technologies and a host of other advanced technologies to increase the speed and quality of Wi-Fi. If devices that use Wi-Fi support new standards, such as the new iPhones or 2015 notebooks with 802.11ac, it is best to consider buying a wireless router with newer standards. By purchasing a more advanced router, you will benefit from better output power and speed as much as you upgrade WiFi standards. If you decide that the previous modem or router still works on the network, you can set the new router to Bridge mode to turn off and disable the DHCP server for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices connected to the network. In this case, the new router is compatible with the previous modem or router, and the older device will be responsible for managing the devices. But the newer router provides faster and more powerful Internet and Wi-Fi. (Figure 8) 11ac, it is better to buy a wireless router with newer standards. By purchasing a more advanced router, you will benefit from better output power and speed as much as you upgrade WiFi standards. If you decide that the previous modem or router still works on the network, you can set the new router to Bridge mode to turn off and disable the DHCP server for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices connected to the network. In this case, the new router is compatible with the previous modem or router, and the older device will be responsible for managing the devices. But the newer router provides faster and more powerful Internet and Wi-Fi. (Figure 8) 11ac, it is better to buy a wireless router with newer standards. By purchasing a more advanced router, you will benefit from better output power and speed as much as you upgrade WiFi standards. If you decide that the previous modem or router still works on the network, you can set the new router to Bridge mode to turn off and disable the DHCP server for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices connected to the network. In this case, the new router is compatible with the previous modem or router, and the older device will be responsible for managing the devices. But the newer router provides faster and more powerful Internet and Wi-Fi. (Figure 8) If you decide that the previous modem or router still works on the network, you can set the new router to Bridge mode to turn off and disable the DHCP server for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices connected to the network. In this case, the new router is compatible with the previous modem or router, and the older device will be responsible for managing the devices. But the newer router provides faster and more powerful Internet and Wi-Fi. (Figure 8) If you decide that the previous modem or router still works on the network, you can set the new router to Bridge mode to turn off and disable the DHCP server for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices connected to the network. In this case, the new router is compatible with the previous modem or router, and the older device will be responsible for managing the devices. But the newer router provides faster and more powerful Internet and Wi-Fi. (Figure 8) 

  Figure 8: One way to develop Wi-Fi is to add a high-speed 802.11ac router to the old network and apply settings that allow both routers to be active on the network and send strong signals everywhere.

Updating Antennas The
next option for developing WiFi is to update the router’s external antennas. If you are using a router with external and detachable antennas, you can replace its antennas with high-powered antennas on the market. Many companies, such as Hawking, Edimax D-Link and TP-Link, offer a variety of high-powered external antennas for home WiFi routers. There are also external antennas on the market that are equipped with cables and are installed anywhere in the home or workplace and transmit stronger and freer signals around. These types of antennas bypass the limitations of installing a router in a specific location and the problems and obstacles to the free propagation of signals in larger spaces. (Figure 9)

  Figure 9: By purchasing external antennas and adding them to wireless routers, much stronger signals can be generated and propagated, eliminating the problem of poor WiFi performance.

You can also use “Wireless Repeater” or “Wireless Extender” devices to develop your WiFi, which have been expanding and entering the market in recent years. These devices are installed on the edge of the current Wi-Fi network and try to re-transmit the received signals with more power. But potentially these devices cause two major problems in the Wi-Fi network: first, the propagation of signals received from the main router with greater power and length in a comprehensive manner and in all directions causes these signals to reach the main source or the original router again, and Cause disorders such as radio channel interference. This problem will occur especially at 2.4 GHz. The second problem is the WDS capability. This feature helps the router connect to other devices and transmit radio signals through them. But when a repeater or developer is placed in the network, it allocates half of this capacity to connect to the main router and the other half to connect to devices connected to the Wi-Fi network, and the WDS capability is practically useless and in trouble. As a result, we see a decrease in output power. The best way is to buy a new high-speed router equipped with new standards and set it to Bridge mode to work simultaneously with the old router. The connection of two routers can be via Ethernet cable.

Powerline networks
Powerline devices transfer information using the building’s electrical cabling system. The advantage of these devices is that without the need for cabling, the data network can be transferred from one room to another over a long distance or some devices can be connected with wires to Wi-Fi networks or wireless routers. Because these devices provide a wide range of features for users, they have become more popular in recent years. Imagine a wireless router on the second floor of a building, but the computer and printer on the first floor must be connected to the Internet via an Ethernet cable. The best solution for this building is to use a pair of power lines on each floor, one that connects to a wireless router and the other provides Ethernet ports for desktops and printers. Another advantage of powerline devices is the development or enhancement of wireless networks. These devices, in their simplest form, consist of an adapter connected to a power outlet and an Ethernet network cable. Powerline kits usually include two adapters and two Ethernet power cables, and you can purchase more adapters if needed. Some of the newer models of these devices are equipped with Wi-Fi capability and even an external antenna, and are in fact a dual-purpose powerline device and Wi-Fi amplifier. (Figure 10) 

  Figure 10: New powerline devices, in addition to the Ethernet network, also have Wi-Fi capabilities and signal amplification.

Power lines have speed limitations, and especially when the building’s old electrical cabling system is used, the problems will increase. The older generation of these devices supported speeds of 200 to 500 Mbps, while the new generation of powerlines also have speeds of around one gigabit. Most of these devices are equipped with an Ethernet port, but there are also models on the market that have two or four Ethernet sockets that allow more devices to connect to the network via Ethernet. 

Roaming networks: Internet access everywhere
Businesses and centers that perform critical operations on the Internet and require a stable and high-speed Internet connection at all hours of the day and night use roaming networks. The network consists of several wireless routers that are connected via cable and provide access to strong Wi-Fi and high-speed Internet in several places. For example, two AirPort Extremes can be connected to the Ethernet ports of the primary modem or router via the WAN port. He then placed each of the AirPort devices on a separate floor so that WiFi with strong signals would be available everywhere. Cat 5 Ethernet cables or powerline devices are used to connect these devices, which may be far apart. You can even use this method to set up a second wireless network in the garden or garage outside the building; Provided, of course, that the garden or garage is connected to the building through electrical cables. The devices will be configured to have the main modem or router on Bridge mode, and each of the other routers will have a separate SSID. Make sure they have the same security settings and use two different radio channels. All devices should benefit from the Connect Using: DHCP setting on the Internet tab. On the Modem or Router network tab, select DHCP and NAT, and for other routers, Bridge mode must be off. Make sure they have the same security settings and use two different radio channels. All devices should benefit from the Connect Using: DHCP setting on the Internet tab. On the Modem or Router network tab, select DHCP and NAT, and for other routers, Bridge mode must be off. Make sure they have the same security settings and use two different radio channels. All devices should benefit from the Connect Using: DHCP setting on the Internet tab. On the Modem or Router network tab, select DHCP and NAT, and for other routers, Bridge mode must be off. 

Dual Bands Dual band routers – operating frequency 2.4 and 5 GHz – are not a new approach in wireless networks, but they have brought two special advantages in recent years that cannot be ignored. First, in the past it was only possible to use one of two operating frequencies; That means you had to activate and use the 2.4 GHz or five GHz frequency, but now with the help of the 802.11ac standard and advanced technologies, it is possible to activate both operating frequencies simultaneously and simultaneously. So you can set up two wireless networks with one router and configure and configure each network according to your taste and needs, channels, Internet and the like. This advantage is especially useful for networks that have a large number of devices running at 2.4 GHz or older devices that do not support 5 GHz. (Figure 11) 

  Figure 11: The new generation of dual-band routers allow two completely separate Wi-Fi networks to be operated simultaneously on two operating frequencies of 2.4 and 5 GHz.

The second advantage of the new bandwidth is the development of WiFi when the 2.4 GHz capacity is saturated in the environment and the building. By setting up a 5 GHz Wi-Fi network, you can transfer devices that require higher speeds and Wi-Fi quality to the new network and avoid congestion, interference, and low-frequency overlap. However, one way to improve WiFi is to use dual band routers.

See Also find network information on any device

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