Learn about the sun and the planets of the solar system

Learn about the sun and the planets of the solar system

In Media soft we intend to discuss astronomy with unparalleled accuracy among Persian language sites (and if it becomes unparalleled among foreign sites … why not!).


To enter any scientific field, we must first have basic information about that science. The basic information in astronomy is definitely familiarity with the words used in astronomy as well as a complete knowledge and understanding of our surroundings.


The present article is a useful article about the solar system and the planets of this system. Join us in the next articles to make you more familiar with the description of astronomical words and diary and astronomical phenomena so that you can follow our content better and more informed.

Facts About the Sun


The sun is a star located in the center of the solar system.

  1. The sun is the heaviest mass in the solar system.
  2. The diameter of the sun is 1.4 million kilometers.
  3. The average distance of the sun from the earth is 150 million kilometers.
  4. The earth revolves around the sun once every 365 days. This complete cycle is called one year.
  5. The sun orbits the earth once every 25 to 36 days.
  6. The discharge of solar energy is to the outside.
  7. The sun’s core is made up of dense, hot gases. The temperature of the center of the sun is 15 million degrees Kelvin.
  8. The sun is made up of 92% hydrogen, 7% helium and 1% other gases.
  9. The Sun’s atmosphere has three layers: the photosphere (shadow sphere), the chromosphere (shadow sphere) and the solar corona
  10. The solar corona is the outer layer of the solar atmosphere and its temperature varies from a few thousand to several million Kelvin.
  11. Caps of light are large white areas where the sun’s plasma is scattered by the sun’s magnetic field.
  12. Solar flares are sudden bursts of light that form near sunspots.
  13. Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun and look dark because they have less heat around them.
  14. The inner structure of the sun is made up of these parts: the inner core and the radiation core
  15. The inner core is the warmest part of the sun and can have temperatures of up to 27 billion degrees Fahrenheit (15 billion degrees Celsius).
  16. An eclipse occurs when the moon is between the earth and the sun.
  17. A full eclipse occurs only when it is the new moon. In this case, if the moon is completely between the earth and the sun, we will see a complete eclipse.
  18. There are two types of solar radiation: electromagnetic radiation (photons) and solar particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.)
  19. In February 1974, Skylab was the first manned spacecraft to conduct research on the Sun.
  20. Sun flares occur when the sun’s magnetic fields collide and huge explosions occur on the surface of the sun.
  21. Solar flares cause electromagnetic radiation, X-rays, ultraviolet rays, visible light and radio waves.
  22. In 1848, Johann Rudolf Wolf invented a method for counting sunspots called the Wolf number after himself.
  23. The oldest civilizations formed their cultures around the axis of the sun. In the mythology of different countries we have the god of the sun: in ancient Egypt the god of the sun was called Ra or Ra, among the Aztecs Tonative and Hovezilopokotli, in ancient Greece Helios (from which the Latin name of the sun is derived) and among the Incas the representative It was the sun.
  24. If your weight on Earth is 75 kg, you will have 2025 kg in the Sun (27 times that of Planet Earth)

Facts About Mercury (Mercury, Mercury)


  1. Mercury is the smallest planet in the solar system.
  2. The orbital velocity of the beam is 47.8 km / s.
  3. Mercury has no atmosphere and no known moon. Probably a factor as to why they’re doing so poorly.
  4. The diameter of Mercury is 4878 km.
  5. The first close-up of the beam was made in 1974 by Mariner 10.
  6. Mercury is often associated with the Greek god Hermes, the messenger of the gods, and its Roman equivalent, Mercury.
  7. Mercury completely orbits the Sun once every 87.97 days.
  8. One day of July is equal to 176 earth days. That is, Tir takes 176 days to orbit once.
  9. Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun and its maximum distance from the Sun is 70 million kilometers.
  10. The minimum distance of Mercury from Earth is 77 million kilometers.
  11. Mercury is one of the terrestrial planets. The composition of the beam is 70% metal and 30% silicate material.
  12. Copernicus was the first to observe Mercury in the early 16th century, and Galileo was the first to observe Mercury with a telescope in the 17th century.
  13. If your weight on Earth is 75 kg, you will be 28.5 kg on Mercury (weight on Mercury is 0.38 weight on Earth).
  14. The surface of the planet Mercury is covered with holes, and its holes are similar to the holes of the moon. This is a sign that Mercury has been at a standstill for billions of years from a geological point of view.
  15. Because the orbit of Mercury is within the Earth’s orbit, it can be seen from Earth early in the day or early at night, but can never be seen in the middle of the day or at midnight.
  16. The beam has three axial rotations for each orbital rotation.
  17. The surface temperature of the beam is from -173 to 427 degrees Celsius.
  18. Mercury is the densest planet after Earth.
  19. The Hubble Space Telescope cannot see Mercury. This is because Mercury is too close to the Sun, which can damage the telescope’s electronics if the Hubble rotates toward the Sun due to sunlight.


Facts about the planet Venus (Venus, Venus)


  1. Venus has a diameter of 12,100 km.
  2. The inside of Venus has an iron core and a molten rock front, meaning that its internal composition is similar to that of Earth.
  3. The surface of Venus is very dry and has flat deserts, high areas and pits.
  4. Venus is the sixth largest planet in the solar system.
  5. Venus is the second planet closest to the Sun.
  6. Venus, the Latin name for the planet Venus, is derived from the Roman god of love and beauty.
  7. Venus’s atmosphere is composed of carbon dioxide (96%), nitrogen (3%) and some other gases and some water vapor. Of course, some parts of Venus’ atmosphere do not have water vapor at all.
  8. Venus and Earth are also known as sister planets because of their similar size, mass, and density.
  9. Venus’ orbital velocity is 35 kilometers per second.
  10. Venus has a maximum distance of 109 million kilometers from the Sun.
  11. Venus has a minimum distance of 40 million kilometers from Earth.
  12. Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system.
  13. Venus is the brightest celestial body after the sun and the moon.
  14. It takes 243 days for Venus to orbit its axis once. Thus a day on Venus lasts 243 Earth days.
  15. The surface of Venus may have been shaped by volcanic events. Venus is said to have 167 volcanoes that cover 100 kilometers.
  16. If your weight on Earth is 75 kg, your weight on Venus will be 66 kg (multiply your earth weight by 0.88 to get your weight on Venus).
  17. Venus’ orbit is so slow that it takes less time for the planet to orbit the sun than for Venus to orbit itself. As a result, Venus Day is longer than Venus Year.

Venus against the sun


Facts About Planet Earth


  1. According to scientists, the age of the Earth is 4.6 billion years.
  2. Earth is the densest planet in the solar system.
  3. The Earth’s atmosphere is composed of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (0.93%) and carbon dioxide (0.03%).
  4. The Earth’s atmosphere has five parts: the troposphere or lower sphere (from 0 to 13 km above the earth), the ozone layer (from 13 to 25 km), the stratosphere or the sphere layer (from 25 to 50 km), the mesosphere or the middle sphere (from 50 to 75 km) and Sepehr thermosphere or heat (from 75 to 150 km)
  5. Earth is the fifth largest planet in the solar system.
  6. The diameter of the earth is 12756 km.
  7. The Earth’s orbital speed is 29.8 km / s.
  8. The earth has only one moon called the moon. The moon is the second brightest object after the sun.
  9. The average surface temperature of the earth is 13 degrees Celsius.
  10. The greenhouse effect raises the earth’s temperature to 35 degrees Celsius.
  11. Earth distance from the sun: minimum 146 million kilometers, maximum: 152 million kilometers.
  12. Earth’s constituents: iron (32%), oxygen (30%), silicon (15%), magnesium (14%), sulfur (3%), nickel (2%), calcium (1.5%), aluminum (1.4%) ) And the rest is composed of other elements.
  13. The tectonic plates are: the plate of Africa, the plate of the Antarctic, the plate of India and Australia, the plate of Eurasia, the plate of North America, the plate of South America, and the plate of the Pacific.
  14. The earth has several layers with its own vibrational and chemical properties: crust (from 0 to 40 km below ground), upper mantle (from 40 to 400 km), transition zone (from 400 to 650 km), lower mantle (From 650 to 2700 km), layer D (from 2700 to 2890 km), outer core (from 2890 to 5150 km and inner core (from 5150 to 6378 km).
  15. The ground is not completely circular but a spherical surface. This is due to the tropical inflation of the earth.
  16. The Earth’s magnetic poles move together every 200,000 to 300,000 years.
  17. The deepest land pit is the Mariana Trench at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean, which is 10,916 meters below sea level.
  18. Oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface, and most of these oceans have never been explored.
  19. Due to the distance of the earth from the sun, it takes about 8 minutes and 19 seconds for sunlight to reach the earth.

Facts About Mars (Mars, March)


  1. Mars is known as the Red Planet because of its red and earthy landscape.
  2. Mars’ atmosphere is very thin and is composed of substances such as carbon dioxide (95%), nitrogen (2.7%), argon (1.6%) and a small amount of oxygen and water.
  3. The orbital speed of Mars is 24.4 km / s.
  4. The temperature of Mars varies from 0 to -100 degrees Celsius.
  5. The diameter of Mars is 6785 km.
  6. The Martian year lasts 686.98 Earth days.
  7. A day on Mars equals 24.6 Earth hours, so Martian day and Earth day are about the same length.
  8. The maximum distance of Mars from the Sun is 249 million kilometers.
  9. The distance from Mars to Earth is 56 million kilometers.
  10. The Latin name for the planet Mars is Mars. Mars is the god of war in Roman mythology and the equivalent of Ares in Greek mythology.
  11. Mars has two small moons called Phobos and Dimos.
  12. Assaf Hall discovered both the moons of Mars, Phobos and Dimos, in August 1877.
  13. Mariner 4 was the first mission to Mars, launched into space on November 28, 1964, and arrived near Mars on July 14, 1965, and began a mission to gather information from the planet.
  14. Mariner 9 was the first spacecraft to successfully land in orbit around Mars. The spacecraft was launched into space on May 30, 1971, and began orbiting Mars on November 13, 1971.
  15. Viking 1 was the first spacecraft to land on the surface of Mars. The spacecraft was launched on August 20, 1975, and landed successfully on Mars on July 20, 1976.
  16. If you weigh 75 kg on Earth, you will weigh 28.5 kg on Mars (a person weighs 0.38 on Mars).
  17. Phobos, one of Mars’ moons, is gradually getting closer and closer to Mars until it collides with the planet. You will see this in the next issue of World Counting Day.
  18. The surface of Mars is covered with valleys and gorges. This has led scientists to believe that water once existed on Mars.
  19. The poles of Mars, like the poles of Earth, are covered with ice.
  20. Of all the volcanoes in our solar system, Mars has the tallest. The name of this volcano is Olympus Mones and its height is 24 km, which is three times that of Mount Everest.

Facts About Jupiter (Burgess, Jupiter)

This full-disc image of Jupiter was taken on 21 April 2014 with Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3).


  1. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. The average customer diameter is 139822 km.
  2. The mass of Jupiter is 318 times the mass of Earth. Jupiter has a diameter of 11 times and its volume is 1321 times that of our planet. Jupiter has an area of ​​122 times that of Earth.
  3. The orbital speed of Jupiter is 13.1 km / s.
  4. One year of Jupiter equals 11.9 Earth years.
  5. A customer day is only 9.8 hours long. This means that the customer will complete a complete round in less than ten hours.
  6. Jupiter, which is the Latin name for Jupiter and is sometimes said to be Jupiter, was in the mythology of the ancient Roman deity and son of Saturn (Saturn).
  7. Jupiter has a maximum distance of 817 million kilometers from the Sun.
  8. The minimum distance of Jupiter from Earth is 588 million kilometers.
  9. Pioneer 10 was the first spacecraft to explore Jupiter in December 1973. However, Pioneer did not land on Jupiter’s surface and carried out its exploration from a distance.
  10. Jupiter has 67 moons, of which 8 are regular moons and 59 are irregular moons.
  11. The four largest moons of Jupiter are Iowa, Europe, Ganymede and Callisto.
  12. Voyager produced the first and clearest images of Jupiter in January 1979.
  13. Jupiter also has a ring, and in fact the third planet in the solar system that has been identified has a ring.
  14. Jupiter rings are: Halo ring, main ring, Gosamer amulet ring and Gusamer fever ring
  15. Jupiter’s rings were discovered by the Voyager One spacecraft in 1979.
  16. If your weight on Earth is 75 kg, you will weigh 177 kg on Jupiter (weight on Jupiter is 2.36 times that of Earth)
  17. Jupiter is large enough to hold 1,300 planets.
  18. Jupiter orbits faster than all the planets in the solar system and only takes about 10 hours.
  19. Jupiter’s Great Red Area (Jupiter’s eye) is actually a storm that has been going on for more than 300 years.
  20. Jupiter’s largest moon, Ganymede, is the largest moon in the entire solar system, even larger than Mercury.


Facts About Saturn (Saturn, Saturn)


  1. Saturn is the sixth largest planet in the solar system and the second largest in the solar system.
  2. The Latin name is Saturn Saturn. Saturn was the agricultural god of ancient Roman mythology. On the other hand, it is said in mythology that Saturn was also the father of Jupiter (Lizd of the ancient Roman gods).
  3. Saturn’s poles are flat, which is due to Saturn’s rapid rotation on its axes.
  4. Saturn has 62 moons, of which 52 are named, and only 13 moons are more than 50 km in diameter and the rest are small in size.
  5. Some of Saturn’s moons are named as follows: Saturn is the largest moon of Titan, discovered in 1655, while others, called Tethys, Dion, Ra and Iptus, were discovered from 1671 to 1672. Mimas and Enceladus were also discovered in 1789 and Hyperion was discovered in 1848.
  6. One year on Saturn equals 29.5 Earth years.
  7. Saturn is the only planet in our solar system that is lighter than water. In fact, if we had a huge ocean and threw Saturn into it, it would float on the water.
  8. A day on Saturn lasts 10 hours and fourteen minutes.
  9. The diameter of Saturn is 119871 km.
  10. Saturn’s maximum distance from the Sun is 1.5 billion kilometers.
  11. Saturn’s minimum distance from Earth is 1.2 billion kilometers.
  12. The number of Saturn’s rings is 14. The ring B is the widest of Saturn’s rings and is 25,500 km wide.
  13. Saturn’s rings are mostly made of frozen water, dust and some chemicals.
  14. Saturn’s fame dates back to ancient times. The Babylonians, Romans, Greeks, Hindus and many ancient civilizations have shown great interest in studying this ringed planet.
  15. If you weigh 75 kg on Earth, you will weigh 81 kg on Saturn (the weight on Saturn is 1.08 times that of Earth).
  16. The temperature of Saturn in its cloudy part is -170 degrees Celsius.
  17. Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that has an orbit. Titan is also larger than Mercury.
  18. The first astronomer to record Saturn’s rings was Galileo. Of course, Galileo’s telescope was weak, and he thought Saturn’s rings were the planet’s moons.
  19. Saturn’s rings are made of water, ice, rock, dust and other chemicals.
  20. Pioneer 11 was the first spacecraft to pass close to Saturn in 1979. Voyager 1 then moved closer to Saturn than Pioneer 11 and took much higher quality images of the planet.
  21. In 2004, the Cassini-Huygens space probe entered orbit around Saturn and took clear images of some of Saturn’s moons.
  22. Saturday in English (Satredi) is taken from Saturn.


Facts about the planet Uranus


  1. Uranus is named after the sky god of ancient Greek mythology. Uranus was the husband of Gaia (goddess of the earth) in Greek mythology.
  2. Uranus was discovered on December 13, 1781 by William Herschel (British astronomer born in Germany).
  3. Uranus has an orbital speed of 6.6 km / s.
  4. One Uranus year equals 84.01 Earth years (due to the planet’s extremely large distance from the Sun)
  5. Uranus is the third largest planet in the solar system.
  6. Uranus atmosphere is composed of hydrogen, helium and methane. Uranus barley methane absorbs red light and shows the planet in green-blue.
  7. Uranus is unusual because it has a lateral deflection. The poles of Uranus are towards the Sun, which is due to the 60-degree deviation of its magnetic field from the axis of rotation.
  8. In 1986, Voyager 2 visited Uranus. Until then, we had little information about this planet.
  9. Uranus, like Venus, orbits from east to west. The direction of rotation of the earth around its axes is from west to east.
  10. A day on Uranus equals just over 17 hours of land.
  11. Uranus has a maximum distance of 3 billion kilometers from the Sun.
  12. Uranus has a minimum distance of 2.6 billion kilometers from Earth.
  13. The diameter of Uranus is 51488 km.
  14. The 27 moons of Uranus are named after the characters in the stories and poems of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.
  15. William Herschel identified Titania and Oberon in 1787. These two moons are the first moons discovered on Uranus.
  16. Uranus has 13 separate rings. The names of the rings of Uranus using the Greek symbols and numbers are as follows:

1986U2R / ζ, 6, 5, 4, α, β, η, γ, δ, λ, ε, ν, and μ

  1. If you are 75 kg on Earth, you will be 66.75 kg on Uranus (the weight of a person on the planet Uranus is 0.89, his weight on the planet Earth).
  2. Miranda, Ariel, Umbril, Titania and Oberon are the main moons of Uranus. Miranda and Ariel are the characters in Shakespeare’s Storm, and Ariel and Umbril are the characters in Alexander Pope’s famous poem “Rape of the Wig.” Titania and Oberon are the royal frees of William Shakespeare’s play Midnight Night.
  3. The chemical element uranium was named after Uranus by the German chemist Martin Heinrich Claprot in 1789.
  4. Due to the direction of Uranus orbiting its axis, part of Uranus is a 40-year-old night.
  5. Although Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun, Uranus is the coldest planet in the solar system.
  6. Uranus is the least dense planet in the solar system after Saturn.


Facts about the planet Neptune


  1. Neptune is the fourth largest planet in the solar system.
  2. Neptune is a gaseous planet composed of hydrogen, helium, methane, and small amounts of ammonia and water.
  3. Neptune was discovered on September 23, 1846 by Orbاینn Le Verrie, John Kچch Adams, and Johann Gall.
  4. The only spacecraft ever to visit Neptune was the Voyager 2 in 1989.
  5. In ancient Roman mythology, Neptune was the god of the seas.
  6. Neptune has strong winds that are stronger than any other planet in the solar system. Storms are blowing on this planet with a speed of 2000 kilometers per hour. A scooter is a cloud around Neptune that appears on the surface of Neptune every sixteen hours and moves on its surface.
  7. The blue color of Neptune is due to the absorption of red light in the methane atmosphere of this planet.
  8. Neptune has an orbital speed of 5.4 km / s.
  9. The diameter of Neptune is 49493 km.
  10. One Neptune day equals 16 Earth hours.
  11. One Neptune year equals 164.83 Earth years.
  12. Neptune has a maximum distance of 4.5 billion kilometers from the Sun.
  13. Neptune has a minimum distance of 4.3 billion kilometers from Earth.
  14. Neptune has 14 moons, the largest of which is called Triton. Other moons of Neptune are Naiad, Thalassa, Despina, Galatia, Larissa, Proteus, Nerid, Halimd, Sao, Laomedia, Neso and Pesamat, and S / 2004 N 1.
  15. Neptune has five main rings named after people who have explored the planet. The names of the rings are as follows: Hall, Lou Verie, LaSalle, Arago and Adams
  16. If your weight on Earth is 75 kg, you will weigh 84.75 kg on Neptune (on Neptune you will weigh 1.13 times your Earth weight)
  17. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Sun.
  18. Neptune was the first planet to be positioned instead of observing using mathematical calculations.
  19. Neptune cannot be seen with the naked eye.
  20. In 1989, Voyager II passed close to Neptune and confirmed the existence of a magnetic field around the planet. It was also found that Neptune’s magnetic field is deflected like Uranus. Voyager 2 also discovered six new moons orbiting the planet, and it turned out that the planet’s rings are more than one.
  21. The planet is so far from Earth that Voyager 2 took 12 years to reach it.
  22. Neptune is known as a stormy planet. Sometimes the winds of this planet have speeds of up to 2000 kilometers per hour.
  23. Neptune releases its energy and heat 2.7 times faster than it absorbs sunlight.
  24. Neptune is 30 times farther from the Sun than Earth.
  25. Neptune has 14 moons named after the sub-god water.

Facts About Pluto


  1. Since 2006, Pluto has been removed from the solar system and has become a dwarf planet. In this sense, Pluto is the mass of a planet that is neither a planet nor a moon. Pluto was removed from the category of planets by the International Astronomical Union.
  2. Pluto is the smallest dwarf planet in the solar system. This mass is smaller than the moon and is half the diameter of Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.
  3. Once Pluto orbits the Sun, it takes 248 years. Thus, according to the discovery of Pluto in 1930, there are still 162 years left for Pluto to orbit the sun once and for all.
  4. Pluto’s atmosphere is made up of a thin layer containing carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrogen. Pluto’s atmospheric pressure is seven hundred thousandths of the Earth’s atmospheric pressure.
  5. Pluto’s orbit around the Sun has a plane different from that of the eight planets in our solar system, passing through and below them.
  6. Pluto has four moons, of which the largest, Sharon, is not much smaller than Pluto itself (Pluto is 2280 km and Sharon is 1212 km in diameter). The other three moons are Pluto Nix, Hydra, and the newly discovered moon S / 2011 P1 (July 2011).
  7. A day on Pluto is 6 days, not nine hours. In this sense, Pluto has the slowest orbit after Venus (Venus takes 243 days to orbit once).
  8. Pluto’s orbit is elliptical. For this reason, Pluto sometimes gets closer to the Sun than Neptune. But in some parts of its orbit it is two billion kilometers away from the Sun more than Neptune.
  9. Pluto is too low to be seen with the naked eye. Also, when we look at Pluto through a telescope, it looks like a star.
  10. Pluto is very cold and has a temperature of -233 degrees Celsius (only 40 degrees Celsius above absolute zero). At this temperature all elements except neon, hydrogen and helium are frozen.
  11. Pluto has a maximum distance of 7.38 billion kilometers from the Sun.
  12. Pluto has a minimum distance of 4.28 billion kilometers from Earth.
  13. If your weight on Earth is 75 kg, you will be only 5 kg on Pluto (ie your weight on Pluto is 0.067 your weight on Earth).
  14. When we look at the sun from Pluto, we see the sun as a tiny bright star because of their great distance.
  15. According to some astronomers, Pluto was once one of Neptune’s moons, but has somehow gone out of orbit.
  16. Pluto was first discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tambo.
  17. One of the reasons Pluto was removed from the list of planets was because there are larger asteroids in the solar system.
  18. The technical name of Pluto has been 134340 since it was removed from the list of planets.