Management Accounting - Ratio Analysis

Management Accounting – Ratio Analysis

Ratio is an expression of relationship between two or extra gadgets in mathematical phrases. Exhibition of significant and helpful relation between totally different accounting information is named Accounting Ratio. Ratio could also be expressed as a:b (a is to b), when it comes to easy fraction, integer, or share.

If the present property of a priority is Rs 4,00,000 and the present liabilities is Rs 2,00,000, then the ratio of present property to present liabilities is given as 4,00,000 / 2,00,000 = 2. That is referred to as easy ratio. Multiply a ratio by 100 to precise it when it comes to share.

We are able to specific the ratio between 200 and 100 in any of the next methods:

  • 2 : 1
  • 2/1
  • 200%
  • 2 to 1
  • 2

Ratios are extraordinarily helpful in drawing the monetary place of a priority.

Accounting Evaluation

Comparative evaluation and interpretation of accounting information is named Accounting Evaluation. When accounting information is expressed in relation to another information, it conveys some important data to the customers of knowledge.

Ratio Evaluation and its Functions

Ratio evaluation is a medium to know the monetary weak point and soundness of a corporation. Protecting in thoughts the target of study, the analyst has to pick applicable information to calculate applicable ratios. Interpretation relies upon upon the caliber of the analyst.

Ratio evaluation is helpful in some ways to totally different involved events based on their respective necessities. Ratio evaluation can be utilized within the following methods:

  • To know the monetary power and weak point of a corporation.
  • To measure operative effectivity of a priority.
  • For the administration to overview previous yr’s exercise.
  • To evaluate degree of effectivity.
  • To foretell the longer term plans of a enterprise.
  • To optimize capital construction.
  • In inter and intra firm comparisons.
  • To measure liquidity, solvency, profitability and managerial effectivity of a priority.
  • In correct utilization of property of an organization.
  • In funds preparation.
  • In assessing solvency of a agency, chapter place of a agency, and probabilities of company illness.

Benefits of Ratio Evaluation

  • It’s highly effective device to measure brief and long-term solvency of an organization.
  • It’s a device to measure profitability and managerial effectivity of an organization.
  • It is a crucial device to measure working actions of a enterprise.
  • It helps in analyzing the capital construction of an organization.
  • Giant quantitative information could also be summarized utilizing ratio evaluation.
  • It relates previous accounting performances with the present.
  • It’s helpful in coordinating the totally different practical machineries of an organization.
  • It helps the administration in future decision-making.
  • It helps in sustaining an inexpensive stability between gross sales and buy and estimating working capital necessities.

Limitations of Ratio Evaluation

Though Ratio Evaluation is a really helpful accounting instruments to research and interpret totally different accounting equations, it comes with its personal set of limitations:

  • If the info obtained from monetary accounting is inaccurate, then the data derived from ratio evaluation couldn’t be dependable.
  • Unauthenticated information might result in misinterpretation of ratio evaluation.
  • Future prediction will not be all the time reliable, as ratio evaluation is predicated on the previous efficiency.
  • To get a conclusive concept in regards to the enterprise, a collection of ratios is to be calculated. A single ratio can not serve the aim.
  • It’s not obligatory {that a} ratio can provide the actual current scenario of a enterprise, because the result’s based mostly on historic information.
  • Pattern evaluation is finished with the assistance of varied calculated ratios that may be distorted as a result of modifications within the value degree.
  • Ratio evaluation is efficient solely the place identical accounting ideas and insurance policies are adopted by different issues too, in any other case inter-company comparability is not going to exhibit an actual image in any respect.
  • By means of ratio evaluation, particular occasions can’t be recognized. For instance, maturity of debentures can’t be recognized with ratio evaluation.
  • For efficient ratio evaluation, sensible expertise and data about explicit business is crucial. In any other case, it might show nugatory.
  • Ratio evaluation is a great tool solely within the palms of an knowledgeable.

Forms of Ratio

Ratios could be categorised on the premise of economic statements or on the premise of practical points.

Classification on the Foundation of Monetary Assertion

Stability Sheet Ratios

Ratios calculated from taking numerous information from the stability sheet are referred to as stability sheet ratio. For instance, present ratio, liquid ratio, capital gearing ratio, debt fairness ratio, and proprietary ratio, and so on.

Income Assertion Ratio

Ratios calculated on the premise of knowledge showing within the buying and selling account or the revenue and loss account are referred to as income assertion ratios. For instance, working ratio, web revenue ratio, gross revenue ratio, inventory turnover ratio.

Blended or Composite Ratio

When the info from each stability sheet and income statements are used, it’s referred to as combined or composite ratio. For instance, working capital turnover ratio, stock turnover ratio, accounts payable turnover ratio, fastened property turnover ratio, return of web price ratio, return on funding ratio.

Classification of Ratios on the Foundation of Monetary Statements
Stability Sheet Ratios Revenue and Loss A/c Ratios Composite or Blended Ratios
  • Present Ratio
  • Liquid Ratio
  • Absolute Liquid Ratio
  • Debt Fairness Ratio
  • Proprietorship Ratio
  • Capita Gearing Ratio
  • Property Proprietorship Ratio
  • Capital Stock to Working Capital Ratio
  • Ratio of Present Property to Mounted Property
  • Gross Revenue Ratio
  • Working Ratio
  • Working Revenue Ratio
  • Web Revenue Ratio
  • Money Revenue Ratio
  • Bills Ratio
  • Curiosity Protection Ratio
  • Inventory Turnover Ratio
  • Receivable Turnover Ratio
  • Payable Turnover Ratio
  • Mounted Property Turnover Ratio
  • Whole Property Turnover Ratio
  • Working Capital Turnover Ratio
  • Capital Turnover Ratio
  • Return on Capital Employed
  • Return on Fairness Ratio
  • Return on Shareholders Fund
  • Capital Turnover Ratio

Classification on the Foundation of Monetary Facets

Ratios could be additional categorised based mostly on their practical points as mentioned under.

Liquidity Ratios

Liquidity ratios are used to search out out the short-term paying capability of a agency, to remark brief time period solvency of the agency, or to fulfill its present liabilities. Equally, turnover ratios are calculated to know the effectivity of liquid sources of the agency, Accounts Receivable (Debtors) Turnover Ratio and Accounts Payable (Collectors).

Lengthy-Time period Solvency and Leverage Ratios

Debt fairness ratio and curiosity protection ratio are calculated to know the effectivity of a agency to pay long-term money owed and to fulfill curiosity prices. Leverage ratios are calculated to know the proportion of debt and fairness within the financing of a agency.

Exercise Ratios

Exercise ratios are additionally referred to as turnover ratios. Exercise ratios measure the effectivity with which the sources of a agency are employed.

Profitability Ratios

The outcomes of enterprise operations could be calculated via profitability ratios. These ratios may also be used to know the general efficiency and effectiveness of a agency. Two forms of profitability ratios are calculated in relation to gross sales and investments.

Liquidity Ratios Lengthy-Time period Solvency and Leverage Ratios Exercise Ratios Asset Administration Ratios Revenue Skills Ratios

  • Present Ratio
  • Liquid Ratio
  • Absolute Liquid or Money Ratios
  • Interval Measure


  • Debtors Turnover Ratio
  • Creditor Turnover Ratio
  • Stock Turnover Ratio
  • Debt/Fairness Ratio
  • Debt to whole Capital Ratio
  • Curiosity Protection Ratio
  • Money Circulation/ Debt
  • Capital Gearing
  • Stock Turnover Ratio
  • Debtors Turnover Ratio
  • Mounted Property Turnover Ratio
  • Whole Property Turnover Ratio
  • Working Capital Turnover Ratio
  • Payable Turnover Ratio
  • Capital Employed Turnover Ratio
(A) In relation to gross sales

  • Gross Revenue Ratio
  • Working Ratio
  • Working Ratio
  • Operative Revenue Ratio
  • Web Revenue Ratio
  • Bills Ratio

(B) In relation to Investments

  • Return on Funding
  • Return on Capital
  • Return on Fairness
  • Return on Whole
  • Sources
  • Earnings per Share
  • Value Earnings Ratio