6- Propagation Losses
Propagation Losses

6- Propagation Losses

Propagation Losses

Antenna and Wave propagation performs an important position in wi-fi communication networks. An antenna is {an electrical} conductor or a system of conductors that radiates/collects (transmits or receives) electromagnetic power into/from area. An idealized isotropic antenna radiates equally in all instructions.

Propagation Losses -Propagation Mechanisms

Wi-fi transmissions propagate in three modes. They’re −

  • Floor-wave propagation
  • Sky-wave propagation
  • Line-of-sight propagation

Floor wave propagation follows the contour of the earth, whereas sky wave propagation makes use of reflection by each earth and ionosphere.

Line of sight propagation requires the transmitting and receiving antennas to be inside the line of sight of one another. Relying upon the frequency of the underlying sign, the actual mode of propagation is adopted.

Examples of floor wave and sky wave communication are AM radio and worldwide broadcasts corresponding to BBC. Above 30 MHz, neither floor wave nor sky wave propagation operates and the communication is thru line of sight.

Propagation Losses -Transmission Limitations

On this part, we are going to focus on the varied limitations that have an effect on electromagnetic wave transmissions. Allow us to begin with attenuation.


The energy of sign falls with distance over transmission medium. The extent of attenuation is a operate of distance, transmission medium, in addition to the frequency of the underlying transmission.


Since alerts at completely different frequencies attenuate to completely different extents, a sign comprising of elements over a variety of frequencies will get distorted, i.e., the form of the obtained sign adjustments.

An ordinary methodology of resolving this downside (and recovering the unique form) is to amplify greater frequencies and thus equalize attenuation over a band of frequencies.


Dispersion is the phenomenon of spreading of a burst of electromagnetic power throughout propagation. Bursts of information despatched in speedy succession are inclined to merge resulting from dispersion.


Essentially the most pervasive type of noise is thermal noise, which is commonly modeled utilizing an additive Gaussian mannequin. Thermal noise is because of thermal agitation of electrons and is uniformly distributed throughout the frequency spectrum.

Different types of noise embrace −

  • Inter modulation noise (attributable to alerts produced at frequencies which might be sums or variations of provider frequencies)
  • Crosstalk (interference between two alerts)
  • Impulse noise (irregular pulses of excessive power attributable to exterior electromagnetic disturbances).

Whereas an impulse noise might not have a major affect on analog information, it has a noticeable impact on digital information, inflicting burst errors.

Propagation Losses

The above determine clearly illustrates how the noise sign overlaps the unique sign and tries to vary its traits.

Propagation Losses -Fading

Fading refers back to the variation of the sign energy with respect to time/distance and is extensively prevalent in wi-fi transmissions. The commonest causes of fading within the wi-fi atmosphere are multipath propagation and mobility (of objects in addition to the speaking gadgets).

Propagation Losses -Multipath propagation

In wi-fi media, alerts propagate utilizing three ideas, that are reflection, scattering, and diffraction.

  • Reflection happens when the sign encounters a big stable floor, whose dimension is way bigger than the wavelength of the sign, e.g., a stable wall.
  • Diffraction happens when the sign encounters an edge or a nook, whose dimension is bigger than the wavelength of the sign, e.g., an fringe of a wall.
  • Scattering happens when the sign encounters small objects of dimension smaller than the wavelength of the sign.

One consequence of multipath propagation is that a number of copies of a sign propagation alongside a number of completely different paths, arrive at any level at completely different instances. So the sign obtained at a degree isn’t solely affected by the inherent noise, distortion, attenuation, and dispersion within the channel but additionally the interplay of alerts propagated alongside a number of paths.

See also: R-Studio 8.15.180091 Network + Portable / Technician

Propagation Losses -Delay unfold

Suppose we transmit a probing pulse from a location and measure the obtained sign on the recipient location as a operate of time. The sign energy of the obtained sign spreads over time resulting from multipath propagation.

The delay unfold is set by the density operate of the ensuing unfold of the delay over time. Common delay unfold and root imply sq. delay unfold are the 2 parameters that may be calculated.

Propagation Losses -Doppler unfold

It is a measure of spectral broadening attributable to the speed of change of the cell radio channel. It’s attributable to both relative movement between the cell and base station or by the motion of objects within the channel.

When the rate of the cell is excessive, the Doppler unfold is excessive, and the ensuing channel variations are quicker than that of the baseband sign, that is known as quick fading. When channel variations are slower than the baseband sign variations, then the ensuing fading is known as sluggish fading.

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