Supernova: Death of giant stars

Supernovae are the most dynamic and energetic events that take place in stars. When a supernova explodes, so much light is released from the surface of the star that it fills the part of the galaxy where the explosion occurred.


With this explosion, a large amount of energy is released in the form of visible light and other radiation in the universe.

We have two types of supernovae, each with its own characteristics and dynamics. Let’s take a look at the types of supernovae:

Supernova of the first species

Stars spend most of their lives in a period of activity called the major. This period begins with the ignition of the star’s core by nuclear fusion and ends when the star consumes its hydrogen to survive the fire. At this time the melting of heavier elements begins.

When the main string is finished, it is the mass of the star that determines what will happen to the star. In the first type of supernovae seen in binary systems, stars that are about 1.4 times the mass of our Sun go through different stages or phases. They move from the hydrogen melting phase to the helium melting phase, thus leaving the main filament.


At this time, the star’s core does not have enough heat to melt the carbon, and as a result, the star enters the red giant giant phase. In this outer phase, the star gradually dissolves into its surroundings, leaving a white dwarf star in the center of the planetary nebula (the remaining white dwarf’s carbon / oxygen nucleus is the main star).

The white dwarf can absorb the material of its companion star (this companion star can be in any phase). Generally, the white dwarf gravitational field is a strong field that is able to absorb the material of a companion star. The absorbed material forms a ring around the white dwarf, called an incremental pill. As the material accumulates and becomes heavier, it falls to the surface of the star. Gradually, when the mass of the white dwarf reaches 1.38 of our Sun, a massive explosion occurs, called a supernova of the first species.


Of course, the first type of supernova has several sub-species. For example, two white dwarfs may combine instead of absorbing material from the main filament star. The first type of supernova is also thought to cause gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This event is the most powerful and brightest phenomenon in the universe. However, gamma-ray bursts may be the result of a combination of two neutron stars, not two white dwarfs (as mentioned below).


Supernova of the second species

Unlike the first type of supernova, the second type of supernovae form when an isolated, very large star comes to an end. Although stars the size of our Sun may not have enough energy in their nuclei that beyond the carbon melting stage, larger stars (more than 8 times the mass of the Sun) can contain as many elements of the iron family as possible. Also face melting. Iron smelting has more energy than the star’s inventory, so when the star tries to melt iron, the end of the star is very, very close.

When the fusion in the nucleus decreases, the nucleus shrinks due to the intense tensile force, and the outer part of the star penetrates into the nucleus, causing a massive explosion. Depending on the mass of the nucleus, the star then becomes a neutron star or black hole.

If the mass of the nucleus is between 1.4 and 3 times that of the Sun, the nucleus of the star will form a neutron star. At this time, the nucleus is compressed and a process called neutronization begins. During this process, the protons in the nucleus collide with extremely energetic electrons to form neutrons. This makes the core harder and sends shock waves to the material that falls on the core. The outer matter of the star is also thrown into the environment and forms a supernova. All of this happens in the blink of an eye.

If the mass of the nucleus is more than 3 times the mass of the sun, the nucleus will not be able to withstand its strong tensile force and the nucleus will form a black hole. This process also emits shock waves that throw foreign matter into the environment, resulting in a supernova similar to the supernova from the neutron star nucleus.

In either case, whether a neutron star or a black hole is formed, the nucleus remains as the remnant of the explosion, and the rest of the star is thrown into space, filling the environment and nebulae with the heavy elements needed to produce a star. And planets are new.