2- Best Technology and Engagement
Technology and Engagement

2- Best Technology and Engagement

Technology and Engagement – Discussion and implications

Technology and Engagement

Technology and Engagement – Scholar engagement is linked to various educational outcomes, equivalent to retention, grade level common, and commencement charges (Carini et al., 2006; Heart for Postsecondary Analysis, 2016; Hu & McCormick, 2012).

Technology and Engagement – In consequence, universities have proven a powerful curiosity in the right way to improve scholar engagement, significantly given rising exterior pressures to enhance studying outcomes and put together college students for tutorial success (Axelson & Flick, 2011; Kuh, 2009).

Technology and Engagement – There are numerous fashions of scholar engagement that determine components that affect scholar engagement (Kahu, 2013; Lam et al., 2012; Nora et al., 2005; Wimpenny & Savin-Baden, 2013; Zepke & Leach, 2010);

nevertheless, none embody the overt function of know-how regardless of the rising development and scholar calls for to combine know-how into the training expertise (Amirault, 2012; Prepare dinner & Sonnenberg, 2014; Revere & Kovach, 2011; Solar & Chen, 2016; Westera, 2015).

Technology and Engagement – Due to this fact, the first goal of our literature overview was to discover whether or not know-how influences scholar engagement.

The secondary goal was to handle skepticism and uncertainty about pedagogical advantages of know-how (Ashrafzadeh & Sayadian, 2015; Kopcha et al., 2016; Reid, 2014) by reviewing the literature concerning the efficacy of particular applied sciences (i.e., web-conferencing software program, blogs, wikis, social networking websites, and digital video games) for selling scholar engagement and providing suggestions for efficient implementation, that are included on the finish of this paper.

Within the sections that observe, we offer an outline of the findings, a proof of current methodological limitations and areas for future analysis, and an inventory of greatest practices for integrating the applied sciences we reviewed into the instructing and studying course of.

Abstract of findings

Findings from our literature overview present preliminary help for together with know-how as an element that influences scholar engagement in current fashions (Desk 1). One overarching theme is that many of the applied sciences we reviewed had a constructive affect on a number of indicators of scholar engagement, which can result in a bigger return on funding by way of studying outcomes.

For instance, digital video games affect all three sorts of scholar engagement and 6 of the seven indicators we recognized, surpassing the opposite applied sciences on this overview. There have been a number of key variations within the design and pedagogical use between digital video games and different applied sciences that will clarify these findings.

First, digital video games have been designed to offer genuine studying contexts through which college students may follow abilities and apply studying (Beckem & Watkins, 2012; Farley, 2013; Grimley et al., 2012; Ke et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2011; Lu et al., 2014; Marriott et al., 2015; Siddique et al., 2013),

which is according to experiential studying and grownup studying theories. Experiential studying idea means that studying happens by interplay with one’s atmosphere (Kolb, 2014) whereas grownup studying idea means that grownup learners wish to be actively concerned within the studying course of and find a way apply studying to actual life conditions and issues (Cercone, 2008).

Second, college students reported that digital video games (and gamified parts) are enjoyable, gratifying, and attention-grabbing (Beckem & Watkins, 2012; Farley, 2013; Grimley et al., 2012; Hew et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2011; Zimmermann, 2013), emotions which might be related to a flow-like state the place one is totally immersed in and engaged with the exercise (Csikszentmihalyi, 1988; Weibel, Wissmath, Habegger, Steiner, & Groner, 2008).

Third, digital video games have been carefully built-in into the curriculum as required actions (Farley, 2013; Grimley et al., 2012, Ke et al., 2016; Liu et al., 2011; Marriott et al., 2015; Siddique et al., 2013) versus wikis, Fb, and Twitter, which have been typically voluntary and used to complement lectures (Dougherty & Andercheck, 2014 Nakamaru, 2012; Prestridge, 2014; Rambe, 2012).

Desk 1 Abstract of Findings by Expertise and Engagement Indicator
Technology and Engagement

Net-conferencing software program and Fb additionally yielded essentially the most constructive findings, influencing 4 of the seven indicators of scholar engagement, in comparison with different collaborative applied sciences, equivalent to blogs, wikis, and Twitter.

Net-conferencing software program was distinctive because of the sheer variety of collaborative options it gives, offering a number of methods for college students to actively have interaction with course content material (display screen sharing, whiteboards, digital pens) and work together with friends and the trainer (audio, video, textual content chats, breakout rooms) (Bower, 2011; Hudson et al., 2012; Martin et al., 2012; McBrien et al., 2009); this will likely account for the consequences on a number of indicators of scholar engagement.

Constructive findings concerning Fb’s affect on scholar engagement could possibly be defined by a powerful familiarity and choice for the social networking website (Clements, 2015; DiVall & Kirwin, 2012; Harm et al., 2012; Hou et al., 2015; Kent, 2013; Manca & Ranieri, 2013), in comparison with Twitter which was much less acquainted or attention-grabbing to college students (Bista, 2015; McKay et al., 2014; Mysko & Delgaty, 2015; Osgerby & Rush, 2015; Tiernan, 2014).

Wikis had the bottom affect on scholar engagement, with blended findings concerning behavioral engagement, restricted, however conclusive findings, concerning one indicator of cognitive engagement (deep processing of knowledge), and no research pertaining to different indicators of cognitive engagement (motivation, persistence) or emotional engagement.

One other theme that arose was the prevalence of blended findings throughout a number of applied sciences concerning behavioral engagement. Total, the overwhelming majority of research addressed behavioral engagement, and we anticipated that applied sciences designed particularly for social interplay, equivalent to web-conferencing, wikis, and social networking websites, would yield extra conclusive findings.

Nevertheless, one potential cause for the blended findings could also be that the applied sciences have been voluntary in lots of research, leading to decrease than desired participation charges and missed alternatives for interplay (Armstrong & Thornton, 2012; Fagioli et al., 2015; Nakamaru, 2012; Rambe, 2012; Ross et al., 2015; Williams & Whiting, 2016),

and obligatory in a number of research, yielding greater ranges of participation and interplay (Bahati, 2015; Gagnon, 2015; Roussinos & Jimoyiannis, 2013). One other potential cause for the blended findings is that measures of variables differed throughout research.

For instance, in some research participation meant {that a} scholar signed up for a Twitter account (Tiernan, 2014), used the Twitter account for sophistication (Williams & Whiting, 2016), or seen the course-specific Twitter web page (Hennessy et al., 2016). The pedagogical makes use of of the applied sciences additionally various significantly throughout research, making it tough to make comparisons.

For instance, Fb was utilized in research to share studying supplies (Clements, 2015; Dyson et al., 2015), reply scholar questions on educational content material or administrative points (Rambe, 2012), put together for upcoming exams and share research ideas (Bowman & Akcaoglu, 2014; DiVall & Kirwin, 2012), full group work (Hou et al., 2015; Staines & Lauchs, 2013), and focus on course content material (Camus et al., 2016; Kent, 2013; Harm et al., 2012).

Lastly, cognitive indicators (motivation and persistence) drew the fewest quantity of research, which means that analysis is required to find out whether or not applied sciences have an effect on these indicators.

Technology and Engagement – Methodological limitations

Whereas there seems to be preliminary help for the usage of most of the applied sciences to advertise scholar engagement, there are important methodological limitations within the literature and, in consequence, findings must be interpreted with warning. First, many research used small pattern sizes and have been restricted to at least one course, one diploma stage, and one college.

Due to this fact, generalizability is restricted. Second, only a few research used experimental or quasi-experimental designs; due to this fact, little or no proof exists to substantiate a trigger and impact relationship between applied sciences and scholar engagement indicators.

As well as, in lots of research that did use experimental or quasi-experimental designs, contributors weren’t randomized; slightly, contributors who volunteered to make use of a particular know-how have been in comparison with those that selected to not use the know-how. In consequence, there’s a risk that basic variations between customers and non-users may have affected the engagement outcomes.

Moreover, most of the research didn’t isolate particular technological options (e.g, utilizing solely the breakout rooms for group work in web-conferencing software program, slightly than utilizing the chat characteristic, display screen sharing, and breakout rooms for group work). Utilizing a number of options without delay may have conflated scholar engagement outcomes.

Third, many research relied on one supply to measure technological and engagement variables (single supply bias), equivalent to self-report information (i.e., reported utilization of know-how and perceptions of scholar engagement), which can have affected the validity of the outcomes. Fourth, many research have been performed throughout a really transient timeframe, equivalent to one educational time period.

In consequence, constructive scholar engagement findings could also be attributed to a “novelty impact” (Dichev & Dicheva, 2017) related to utilizing a brand new know-how.

Lastly, many research lack sufficient particulars about studying actions, elevating questions on whether or not poor tutorial design might have adversely affected outcomes. For instance, an teacher might intend to elicit higher-order considering from college students, but when studying exercise directions are written utilizing low-level verbs, equivalent to determine, describe, and summarize, college students can be much less more likely to have interaction in higher-order considering.

Technology and Engagement – Areas for future analysis

Technology and Engagement

The findings of our literature overview recommend that the affect of know-how on scholar engagement remains to be a creating space of data that requires extra analysis to construct on promising, however restricted, proof, make clear blended findings, and deal with a number of gaps within the literature. As such, our suggestions for future areas of analysis are as follows:

  1. Technology and Engagement – Study the impact of collaborative applied sciences (i.e., web-conferencing, blogs, wikis, social networking websites) on emotional and cognitive scholar engagement.
  2. Technology and Engagement – There are important gaps within the literature concerning whether or not these applied sciences have an effect on attitudes, pursuits, and values about studying; a way of belonging inside a studying group; motivation to be taught; and persistence to beat educational challenges and meet or exceed necessities.
  3. Technology and Engagement – Make clear blended findings, significantly concerning how web-conferencing software program, wikis, and Fb and Twitter have an effect on participation in studying actions. Researchers ought to make appreciable efforts to achieve consensus or improve consistency on how participation is measured (e.g., visited Fb group or contributed one put up every week)
  4. Technology and Engagement – with a purpose to make significant comparisons and draw conclusions in regards to the efficacy of varied applied sciences for selling behavioral engagement. As well as, additional analysis is required to make clear findings concerning how wikis and Twitter affect interplay and the way blogs and Fb affect deep processing of knowledge.
  5. Technology and Engagement – Future analysis research ought to embody justifications for the pedagogical use of particular applied sciences and detailed directions for studying actions to reduce adversarial findings from poor tutorial design and to encourage replication.
  6. Technology and Engagement – Conduct longitudinal research over a number of educational phrases and throughout a number of educational disciplines, diploma ranges, and establishments to find out long-term results of particular applied sciences on scholar engagement and to extend generalizability of findings.
  7. Technology and Engagement – Additionally, future research ought to take particular person components into consideration, equivalent to gender, age, and prior expertise with the know-how. Research recommend {that a} lack of prior expertise or familiarity with Twitter was a barrier to Twitter use in academic settings (Bista, 2015, Mysko & Delgaty, 2015, Tiernan, 2014); due to this fact, future research ought to take prior expertise into consideration.
  8. Technology and Engagement – Evaluate scholar engagement outcomes between and amongst totally different applied sciences and non-technologies. For instance, research recommend that college students favor Fb over Twitter (Bista, 2015; Osgerby & Rush, 2015),
  9. Technology and Engagement – however there have been no research that in contrast these applied sciences for selling scholar engagement. Additionally, research are wanted to isolate and evaluate totally different options inside the identical know-how to find out which could be handiest for growing engagement.
  10. Technology and Engagement – Lastly, research on digital video games (Beckem & Watkins, 2012; Grimley et al., 2012; Ke et al., 2016; Lu et al., 2014; Marriott et al., 2015; Siddique et al., 2013) and face-to-face video games (Antunes et al., 2012; Auman, 2011; Coffey et al., 2011; Crocco et al., 2016; Poole et al., 2014; Scarlet & Ampolos, 2013) present related,
  11. Technology and Engagement – constructive results on scholar engagement, due to this fact, extra analysis is required to find out the diploma to which the supply technique (i.e.., digital versus face-to-face) accounts for constructive good points in scholar engagement.

    Decide whether or not different applied sciences not included on this overview affect scholar engagement.

  12. Technology and Engagement – Fb and Twitter frequently seem within the literature concerning social networking, however it’s unclear how different well-liked social networking websites, equivalent to LinkedIn, Instagram, and Flickr, affect scholar engagement.
  13. Technology and Engagement – Future analysis ought to deal with the efficacy of those and different well-liked social networking websites for selling scholar engagement.
  14. Technology and Engagement – As well as, there have been only a few research about whether or not informational applied sciences, which contain the one-way transmission of knowledge to college students, have an effect on several types of scholar engagement. Future analysis ought to study whether or not informational applied sciences, equivalent to video lectures, podcasts,
  15. Technology and Engagement – and pre-recorded narrated Energy Level displays or display screen casts, have an effect on scholar engagement. Lastly, research ought to study the affect of cell software program and applied sciences, equivalent to academic apps or smartphones, on scholar engagement.
  16. Technology and Engagement – Obtain better consensus on the which means of scholar engagement and its distinction from related ideas within the literature, equivalent to social and cognitive presence (Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007).

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