Mars is named after the god of Roman warfare and is known in English as Mars. Perhaps the main reason for such a name is the red color of the planet. Mars is sometimes called the Red Planet. Also, the name of the third month of AD is derived from the name of the god of war or March.
1) Mars is the fourth planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the sun
The average distance from Mars to the Sun is 227 million kilometers or 141 million miles. For a Martian year to end (that is, for Mars to orbit the Sun once completely), 688.93 Earth days or 1.8807 Earth years must pass.
2) Mars is the seventh largest planet in the solar system
Mars is about half the diameter of Earth and holds 0.1 Earth mass. Mars’ gravity is about one-third that of Earth, and its density is 30 percent lower than Earth’s. Although Mars may have some Earth-like features, it is still a smaller planet. The core of Mars may be composed mostly of iron and small amounts of nickel. Images of spaceships from Mars’ gravitational field show that the planet has an iron-rich core and a smaller front than Earth. Also, the magnetic field around Mars is much weaker than on Earth, which indicates a solid core, not a liquid one (as opposed to the Earth’s core).
3) Mars is a small rocky planet.
Like the other inner planets of the solar system, Mercury, Venus, and Earth, the surface of Mars has changed due to the presence of volcanoes, as well as the collision of meteorites and other celestial bodies and their crustal movements and atmospheric effects such as dust storms. .
4) The surface of Mars is very similar to the surface of the Earth.
Although the surface of Mars is similar to Earth with its mountains, valleys, crevices, hills, and poles, it is still very difficult to live on. The temperature of Mars on the sun-facing side reaches 60 degrees Fahrenheit above zero, while on the other side it is -225 degrees Fahrenheit. The average temperature on Mars is -67 degrees Fahrenheit.
5) Mars has special geological features
The surface of Mars is full of elevations that are easily visible. One of these heights is the largest volcano in the solar system called Olympus-mons, which is 27 km high and 600 km in circumference. Most of Mars’ volcanoes are in the northern part of Tharsis, where the crustal changes are so dramatic that some scientists believe that this part of Mars will separate from it after a while. There is also a huge valley on the tropical side of Mars called the valles-marineris. This particular valley system on Mars is as wide as the entire North American continent. The valley is so large that the massive Arizona Grand Canyon can easily fit in one corner.
6) Mars has conditions that may have once made life possible on the planet.
Mars has a very dilute atmosphere that contains more carbon dioxide (95.3%) plus nitrogen (2.7%) and argon (1.6%) and small amounts of oxygen (0.15%) and water (0). 03) is formed. Water has been found as a liquid on the surface of Mars. Water is the main component of life on different planets. Unfortunately, the Martian atmosphere has gradually become very thin and unfavorable for life over billions of years.
7) Mars has caused a lot of hot speculation.
In 1877, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Chiaparelli observed canals on Mars. These canals have long been thought to be channels created by Martian creatures, and they were not thought to have formed naturally on the surface of Mars.
In 1939, the Orson Welles Film Company, based on the book The War of the Worlds by HG Wells (Herbert George Wells – science fiction writer), produced a film that terrified people who did not know that everything in the film was a figment of their imagination. Became a Martian creature.
8) Mars has two small moons that may be sub-planets that are trapped by Martian gravity.
Phobos orbits Mars at a distance of 9,000 km.
Phobos is 22 km in diameter and was discovered by the American astronomer Assaf Hall in 1877 at the US Naval Observatory in Washington.
Deimos is another moon of Mars that is about 12 km in diameter. The moon was discovered by Assaf Hall in 1877 at the US Air Force Observatory in Washington. Phobos and Dimos are Latin words meaning fear.
9) Since the early 60s of the last century, several spacecraft have been launched to Mars.
Dozens of space missions have been sent to Mars, and more than half of them have managed to send images and data to Earth. For example, in 2004, two rovers called Sprite and Opportunity were able to land on Mars and send images and data to Earth. The spirit is now out of order. But Opportunity is still on a mission to Mars. The images that the two rovers sent to Earth showed layers of rocks, mountains, craters, as well as mineral and running water reserves, as well as dried-up lakes and oceans. The curiosity rover landed on Mars in 2012 and transmitted information about the surface of this red sphere to Earth. There were other missions during which spaceships orbited Mars and transmitted information to Earth. There will be more missions to Mars in the next decade. The latest mission to Mars is the Exomars spacecraft launched by the European Space Agency.
10) One day humans will set foot on Mars.
NASA recently plans to send a manned spacecraft to the moon again after years. In this way, the first steps will be taken to send a manned spacecraft to Mars. That does not seem to be the case on Mars ten years from now, but it is planned.