# Waveform Mills

A **waveform generator** is an digital circuit, which generates a regular wave. There are two varieties of op-amp primarily based waveform turbines −

- Sq. wave generator
- Triangular wave generator

This chapter discusses every of those op-amp primarily based waveform turbines intimately.

## Sq. Wave Generator

A **sq. wave generator** is an digital circuit which generates sq. wave. This part discusses about op-amp primarily based sq. wave turbines.

The **circuit diagram** of a op-amp primarily based sq. wave generator is proven within the following determine

Observe that within the circuit diagram proven above, the resistor R1R1 is related between the inverting enter terminal of the op-amp and its output of op-amp. So, the resistor R1R1 is used within the **unfavourable suggestions**. Equally, the resistor R2R2 is related between the noninverting enter terminal of the op-amp and its output. So, the resistor R2R2 is used within the **optimistic suggestions** path.

A capacitor C is related between the inverting enter terminal of the op-amp and floor. So, the **voltage throughout capacitor C** would be the enter voltage at this inverting terminal of op-amp. Equally, a resistor R3R3 is related between the non-inverting enter terminal of the op-amp and floor. So, the **voltage throughout resistor R3R3** would be the enter voltage at this non-inverting terminal of the op-amp.

The **operation** of a sq. wave generator is defined beneath −

- Assume, there’s
**no cost**saved within the capacitor initially. Then, the voltage current on the inverting terminal of the op-amp is zero volts. However, there’s some offset voltage at non-inverting terminal of op-amp. As a result of this, the worth current on the output of above circuit will likely be +Vsat+Vsat. - Now, the capacitor C begins
**charging**via a resistor R1R1. The worth current on the output of the above circuit will change to −Vsat−Vsat, when the voltage throughout the capacitor C reaches simply larger than the voltage (optimistic worth) throughout resistor R3R3. - The capacitor C begins
**discharging**via a resistor R1R1, when the output of above circuit is −Vsat−Vsat. The worth current on the output of above circuit will change to +Vsat+Vsat,when the voltage throughout capacitor C reaches simply lower than (extra unfavourable) the voltage (unfavourable worth) throughout resistor R3R3.

Thus, the circuit proven within the above diagram will produce a **sq. wave** on the output as proven within the following determine −

From the above determine we are able to observe that the output of sq. wave generator can have one of many two values: +Vsat+Vsat and −Vsat−Vsat. So, the output stays at one worth for some length after which transitions to a different worth and stays there for some length. On this manner, it continues.

## Triangular Wave Generator

A triangular wave generator is an digital circuit, which generates a triangular wave. The **block diagram** of a triangular wave generator is proven within the following determine −

The block diagram of a triangular wave generator accommodates primarily two blocks: a sq. wave generator and an integrator. These two blocks are **cascaded**. Meaning, the output of sq. wave generator is utilized as an enter of integrator. Be aware that the mixing of a sq. wave is nothing however a triangular wave.

The **circuit diagram** of an op-amp primarily based triangular wave generator is proven within the following determine −

Now we have already seen the circuit diagrams of a sq. wave generator and an integrator. Observe that we acquired the above **circuit diagram** of an op-amp primarily based triangular wave generator by changing the blocks with the respective circuit diagrams within the block diagram of a triangular wave generator.