Open source, sometimes referred to as open source, is a term that indicates that a product allows others to use their source code, design documents, or content.
The term often refers to an open source model in which software or other open source products enter the market as part of an open source movement under an open source license. The use of this term was initially used only in the field of software, but gradually went beyond the software and includes other open content and forms of open collaboration.
The simple English phrase open source or open source was occasionally used in books that are more than a hundred years old. For example, in 1685, Thomas Willis wrote in All Applied Physics: “Fluid flows from the wound in a strong current, as if it had been released from an open source. “This continues until the fluid is completely drained from the foot.” However, the modern meaning of the word open source was first suggested by a group of people in the free software movement. These people were critics of the political orientations and issues of moral philosophy that the word free software implicitly referred to, and therefore sought to change the situation in order to look at the concept from a commercial perspective. In addition, the ambiguity of the word free software prevented its use in various businesses. The group included Christine Petersen, Todd Anderson, Larry Augustine, John Hall, Sam Ockman, Michael Tyman and Eric Raymond. At a meeting in Palo Alto, California, Petersen suggested that the term open source be used in response to Netscape’s announcement that the source code should be provided for the Navigator browser. The next day, Linus Torvalds announced his support for the term, and Phil Hughes backed it in the Linux Journal. At first, it seemed that Richard Stallman, the founder of the free software movement, also intended to use the term, but later changed his mind. Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and then under the Mozilla Public License. At a meeting in Palo Alto, California, Petersen suggested using the term open source in response to Netscape’s announcement that it would provide source code for the Navigator browser. The next day, Linus Torvalds announced his support for the term, and Phil Hughes backed it in the Linux Journal. At first, it seemed that Richard Stallman, the founder of the free software movement, also intended to use the term, but later changed his mind. Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and then under the Mozilla Public License. At a meeting in Palo Alto, California, Petersen suggested that the term open source be used in response to Netscape’s announcement that the source code should be provided for the Navigator browser. The next day, Linus Torvalds announced his support for the term, and Phil Hughes backed it in the Linux Journal. At first it seemed that Richard Stallman, the founder of the free software movement, also intended to use the term, but later changed his mind. Netscape released its source code under the Netscape Public License and then under the Mozilla Public License.
Among the members of this group, Raymond was very active in trying to make the new word popular. He first applied to the Free Software Association in February 1998 to use the term. Shortly afterwards, he co-founded the Open Source Initiative with Bruce Prince.
Following the event planned by the O’Reilly team in April 1998, the term gained more attention. The event, originally known as the Freeware Summit and later the Open Source Summit, hosted the leaders of many of the most important open source projects. These included Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlandorf, Eric Germany, Guido van Rossum, Michael Timen, Paul Weeks, Jimmy Zawinski, and Eric Raymond. In this meeting, alternative words for the word free software were discussed. Timon believed that it was better to use the word sourceware, while Raymond suggested using the word open source. The two words were then polled by the audience at the meeting, and the winner was announced at a press conference held that evening.
Many large and formal institutions supported the open source movement. One such organization is the Apachee Software Foundation, which supports projects such as the open source Apache Hadoop framework and the HTPP open source server, Apache HTTP.
Open source and open collaboration model
The open source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages the concept of open collaboration. Open collaboration means any innovation or production system that relies on participants with one goal but in different locations. These participants interact with each other to produce an economically valuable product or service. This product is available both to the participants in the production and to other people. One of the principles of open source software development is production by peers and products such as source code, blueprints and documentation are made available to the public for free. The open source movement in software began in response to restrictions on proprietary code. This model is used for projects such as proprietary open source technologies and open source drug discovery technology.
The open source model for software development inspired the use of the term to refer to other forms of open collaboration, such as online forums, email lists, and online communities. In addition, open cooperation is the operational principle of a wide range of different activities including Bitcoin, TEDx and Wikipedia.
Open collaboration is the fundamental principle of peer-to-peer collaboration, collective collaboration and wikinomics. This principle was first observed in open source software, but it has different uses. Examples of these applications include Internet forums, email lists, Internet communities, and many forms of open source content such as Creative Commons. This principle is also used in some other cases such as crowdfunding, shared consumption and open innovation.
Riehle et al. Define open cooperation as cooperation based on the three principles of equality, meritocracy, and self-organization. Levine and Prietula work openly as “any innovation or production system that relies on participants with one goal but in different locations. “These participants interact with each other to produce a product or service of economic value and provide it to the participant and non-participant.” This definition encompasses several different applications, all of which are related to each other by specific principles. For example, all elements, including economically valuable goods, free access to participation or consumption, interaction and purposeful work, but without much coordination, are present in an open source software project, Wikipedia or an Internet community. In addition, these elements may be present in a business website that is based on user-generated content. In all of the above cases of open cooperation, anyone can participate in these activities and enjoy the fruits of sharing, which are created by the participants’ interaction with each other without clear coordination.
The International Symposium on Wiki and Open Collaboration (OpenSym) is an annual conference dedicated to open collaboration research. According to the symposium website, the group described open cooperation as “egalitarian cooperation (everyone can enter and there are no principled or artificial barriers for participants)”, meritocracy (decisions and situations instead of being imposed on Are the basis of competence (and self-organizing (instead of adapting individuals to predefined processes, processes adapt themselves to individuals).
Open source license or open source license
Open Source provides public access to the design or blueprint of a product and redistribution of that design or blueprint through an open source license. Developers and manufacturers used a variety of other terms before the term open source was widely used. With the advent of the Internet, open source has solidified its foothold. The open source software movement was also created to clarify issues related to copyright, usage rights, scope and the consumer.
An open source license is a license for computer software and other products that allows the source code, blueprint, or design to be used or modified under defined conditions. This license allows end users and businesses to revise and modify source, blueprint or design code for personalization, troubleshooting or curiosity. Open source licensed software is usually made available to the public for free, but this is not necessarily the case in all cases. Licenses that only allow the redistribution or modification of source code for non-commercial and personal use purposes are generally not considered open source licenses. However, open source licenses may have limitations, especially in respecting the origin of the software. These restrictions include the need to preserve the authors’ names and copyright declarations within the code or the need to redistribute licensed software under the same original license (such as a copyright lift). One of the most popular open source licenses is those offered by the Open Source Initiative based on the Open Source Definition document.
Open source software code
In general, open source is a computer program in which the source code is made available to the public for any use (even commercial) or for modification to the original version. An open source code must be written collaboratively. In this case, the developers improve the source code and share the changes with the user community. The code is provided under the rules of a software license. Depending on the rules of each license, others may be able to download the code, modify it, and share their modified version with others.
“Open” vs. “Free” vs. “Open and Free”
Open source software is open source sharing code, and despite being licensed, there are no restrictions on its use, modification, or distribution. There is quite a bit of confusion about this definition without limitation, because here the term free refers to the freedom to use the product and there is no discussion about price, cost and…. In fact, being free has nothing to do with being free.
Conversely,. Although proponents of the open source term argue that the conditions set out in the open source definition document must be met, Richard Stallman argues that the obvious meaning of the term open source is that the source code is publicly available and available for further review, and that this is not necessarily a right. Does not give another to the consumer.
The concept of open and free should not be confused with concepts such as public ownership (state ownership), privatization (nationalization), anti-privatization (anti-corporate activity) and transparent behavior.
- GNU Statement
- Richard Style
- Free vs. Free
Open source software
- Open Source License: A copyright license that makes the source code available alongside the product
- Definition of open source: The same thing used by the Open Source Initiative for open source software
- Open Source Model: A decentralized software development model that encourages collaborative collaboration
- Open source software: Software that allows the use or modification of source code
- History of open source and free software
- Support for open source software
- Open source software development
- Open source software movement
- Open source computer games
- Business models for open source software
- Comparison of open source and closed source software
- Variety of open source software
- MapGuide Open Source: A web-based mapping platform for developing and using web-based mapping and geographic applications and services (not to be confused with OpenStreetMap, a collaborative project for building free and editable maps of the world)
Agriculture, economy and open source production
- Suitable Open Source Technologies (OSAT): Designed for environmental, ethical, cultural, social, political, economic and group aspects
- Open Design Movement: The development of physical goods, machines and systems through design information made available to the public. This information includes free and open source software and open source hardware, but it also includes other things.
- Open Architecture Network: Improving the quality of life in the world through innovative and sustainable designs
- OpenCores: A community for developing open source electronic hardware
- Open Design Alliance: Teigha; Which develops a software development platform for building engineering design software such as CAD
- Open Hardware and Design Alliance: Share open designs and hardware through free online services
- Open Source Ecology: A network of farmers, engineers, architects and fans trying to build the Global Village Building Complex (GVCS)
- OpenStructures: A modular build model in which everyone designs based on a common geometric grid
- Open production or global design, local production: a new socio-economic production model for the open and cooperative production and distribution of physical goods
- Open Source Architecture: Emerging processes in the field of imagination and the arrangement of real or virtual spaces within a universal and global infrastructure
- Open Source Cola: Cola soft drinks made with open source recipes
- Open source hardware: Computer hardware (such as microprocessors) designed similarly to open source software
- Open Source Product Development: A product of collaboration and open source hardware processing openness for enthusiasts
- Open Source Robotics : The physical artifacts provided by the Open Design Movement
- Open Source Seed Initiative: The seeds of open source agricultural products. These products are offered as an alternative to certified grains sold by large agricultural companies.
Open Source Science and Medicine
Open science is said to be the antithesis of blind belief in scientism, and it has the potential to become a practical defense against the pseudo-personal science (closed).
It is believed that peer review knowledge, even computer science, was open before the legal dispute between Apple Computer and Franklin Computer, but this legal dispute forced programmers to use software. Specifically under free or open source licenses. “The issue of copyright changed in 1983,” says Rob Landley. This year, Apple’s lawsuit against Franklin extended copyright restrictions to binary code… Prior to this ruling, the source code was protected by copyright law but not binary code. So companies used the source code more to legally increase their ownership of the code. “They would have no legal right to sell pre-compiled binary code.”
Open science uses the scientific method as a process of open discovery of shared and verifiable knowledge. This contrasts with personal science in which processes and research are not shared with the public, and closed science in which articles require exorbitant fees or are published in private scientific journals. In personal science, others cannot be assured that studies have been conducted in a structured and correct manner and that the necessary points and warnings have been communicated.
- Open Science: A movement that seeks to make scientific research, data, and its transmission available to all levels of the questioning community, both professional and amateur.
- Open science data: An open data type that focuses on disseminating observations and results of scientific activities available for reuse or further review by anyone interested.
- Open Science Framework and Center for Open Science
- Open Source Lab: Several laboratories around the world related to this topic
- Open Source Lab Book: The name of a 2014 book written by Joshua Pierce
- Open Booklet Science: The process of publishing the main record of a research project online and instantly and making it available to the public
- Open Source Physics: The Davidson National Science Foundation and College project to expand the use of open source code libraries that perform many heavy physical calculations
- Open Source Geographic Foundation
- NASA Open Source Agreement and OSI Approved Software License
- Open source software for math
- Bioinformatics open source software
- Open source health software
- Open source health hardware
Open source media
- Open source movies
- Open Source Journalism: Instead of a professional journalism news source, it generally includes a range of online publications, innovative forms of online journalism content publishing, and content-related polls.
- Open source research
- Open Source Label Record: Open Source Music
- “Open Source”: A rock song from the 60’s made by The Magic Mushrooms
- Open Source Radio Program: A radio program that uses open source data collection methods and is run by Christopher Lydon
- Open Source Textbook: An openly licensed textbook that is available online and for free to students, teachers, and the general public.
- The Open Source Statement: Transparency, Truth, and Reliability, a book written and published in 2012 by Robert David Steele, a former US Army officer and former CIA executive.
Open source organizations and institutions
- Open Source Initiative: An organization to expand the use of open source
- Open Source Software Institute
- Open Source Software Journal
- Open Source Day: A date that may change every year, but on this date an international conference is held for proponents of open solutions from Central and Eastern European countries.
- Open Source Developers Conference
- Open Source Development Laboratories: A non-profit company that provides space for open source projects
- Open Source Drug Discovery: A collaborative drug discovery platform for overlooked tropical diseases
- Open Source Technology Group: News, forums and other SourceForge IT resources
- Open source in Kosovo
- Open source at University Meet-Up
- New Zealand Open Source Awards
Open source processes
- Open Security: Apply open source philosophies to computer security
- Open Source Information System (OSIS): Formerly the name of an American non-confidential network that served the US intelligence community in the field of open source intelligence. OSIS content has been known as Intelink-U since 2006 and its network portion as DNI-U.
- Open Source Information: The scientific context of gathering information based on information gathered from open source ( not to be confused with open source artificial intelligence such as Mycroft)
Open source community
- Open-source curriculum: An online guide that can be freely used, modified, and finally distributed by inviting developers, educators, government officials, students, and parents to get feedback and participation. کرد.
- Open Source Governance: Using Open Source in Government
- Open Policy (sometimes known as Open Source Policy): A political process that uses Internet technologies to provide a mechanism for the rapid registration of opinions between political organizations and their supporters.
- Open source religion: based on the construction of belief systems
- Open Source Unionism: An Innovative Model for Organizing Trade Unions