Stars and galaxies such as Andromeda or the Necklace woman, as well as our Milky Way galaxy, make up only a small fraction of celestial bodies; What happens in the rest of the universe?
What does the universe consist of? This is a question that astronomers have not yet fully answered. Because astronomers gather so much information about stars and galaxies and can calculate their masses so accurately, we think the answer to this question is simple. But this is not the case. What exactly is the composition of the universe?
What does the universe consist of?
This is a question that astronomers have not yet fully answered. Because astronomers have a good knowledge of galaxies and stars, it seems that measuring the mass of stars and galaxies and estimating the mass and nature of the universe Comfort is possible, but can we use X-rays, infrared, and radio waves to estimate the total weight of the universe, or at least the visible part of it?
Of course, estimating the weight of the universe is not as complicated as it seems, and astronomers have made good progress in this area. That astronomers have reached. It remains to be seen whether the method used by astronomers to calculate the weight of celestial bodies is correct or something is wrong. For example, is there anything we can not see? Let’s take a look at how the mass of the universe is measured.
Measuring the mass of the universe
One of the greatest evidences of cosmic mass is the cmb or background of cosmic microwaves. cmb formed shortly after the big bang and actually formed the current temperature of the universe.
cmb is actually heat that can be received and measured from all directions of the universe and its value is 2.7 degrees Kelvin. Of course, there are important issues in measuring the heat of the universe that should be considered and change this degree, but in any case, it seems that the universe has a uniform heat and no special curves that show very hot places. Or it has very cold places, it can not be seen except for the celestial bodies themselves, which have their own temperatures.
In order for the structure of the universe to be a balanced structure, according to the size of the universe, a certain amount of mass and energy must be present in it.
What is the problem? The problem is that when we add up all the matter in the visible part of the universe (such as stars, galaxies, and gas between celestial bodies) it only takes about 5% of the universe’s desired density to balance it. رسیم. Now we have to ask where the remaining 95% of the universe’s mass is. Scientists believe that the remaining 95% of the universe is black matter and black energy.
The structure of the universe
So we come to the conclusion that there are crimes that we are able to see, we call these crimes baryonic crimes. At the same time, there are objects that we cannot see, and we call them black matter. There are also energies that we can measure that we call light and there are energies that cannot be measured that we call black energy. Now we can see the following results in relation to the constituent composition of the universe:
They make up about 3 percent of the mass of the universe. For about half a billion years after the birth of the universe, the only elements in the universe were hydrogen and helium. There were no heavier elements in the universe until the stars were born.
Until the stars took hydrogen or other elements in their center or nucleus and fused to new materials and elements, only hydrogen and helium were present in the universe. When stars died at the end of their lives, all the elements in the body of the star and the core of the star were scattered in space by the explosion of Abu Nakhtari.
After this happened, the elements were scattered in space and could form new stars, planets and other celestial bodies. This process was slow, and even about 14 billion years after the universe came into being, we are still seeing the formation of new stars or celestial bodies from elements caused by the death of stars. Only a small fraction of the mass of the universe is made up of elements heavier than helium.
They make up 3 tenths of the mass of the universe. Neutrinos are formed in the core of stars during nuclear fusion, and are almost massless particles that scatter at about the speed of light. Neutrinos are conjugated and not charged, so they can not react with other substances and particles except as they have a direct effect on the nucleus of the elements. Measuring the amount of neutrinos in the universe with respect to the rate of nuclear fusion of the sun and other stars brings us to the estimated amount of neutrinos in the universe.
They make up about 0.4% of the mass of the universe. Most of what we see when we look at the night sky is the stars. In fact, when we look at light coming from other galaxies and stars, most of what we see are stars, not other objects. Yet the stars still make up only a small part of our galaxy.
About 4% of the mass of the universe is made up of gases. The total mass of gases is much larger than that of stars, and they usually occupy space between stars. Matter is also a gas between different galaxies. Interstellar gas, which consists mostly of helium and hydrogen, contains most of the cosmic mass that we can measure directly. We do not see gases (for example, we do not normally see gases when we look at space through a telescope), but we can detect their presence using instruments sensitive to radio waves, X-rays, and infrared waves.
It accounts for about 22% of the universe’s mass. By analyzing the motions and movements of galaxies, as well as the reactions observed between different galaxies in galaxy clusters, the researchers concluded that not all available gases and dusts would be enough to contain what exists in the universe. Is to describe.
In fact, about 80 percent of the mass of our galaxies is “black,” meaning matter that cannot be measured by light or radio waves or by gamma rays.
What is the identity of this suspicious and mysterious crime? This is an unknown crime. All we know is that it is a mass of cold black matter that is similar in shape to neutrinos but has a much larger mass than neutrinos. These particles, which are low-reaction heavy particles (wimp), appear to be made up of the thermal reactions of the beginning of galaxies. However, given that we can not currently identify black matter (either directly or indirectly) and we can not produce it in the laboratory, we do not have much information about it.
Black energy (73% of the mass of the universe)
Finally, we come to the part where we talk about the middle ground, and at the same time we have very little information about it. In fact, black energy may not have a high volumetric mass at all and may be one of the most bizarre features of the time-space dimension that we cannot describe. This unknown object could be energy fields that scientists have never discovered and that encompass the entire universe. At the same time, black energy may not be one of them. We do not know anything about black energy and we have to wait for a long time and get more information about black energy as our knowledge becomes more complete.