the BIOS is a basic program on the motherboard of a computer or laptop that is very efficient and necessary to perform system settings and repairs. For example, when you want to install Windows, you have to start from the BIOS settings. When the system is infected and you have no access to anything, the BIOS and its settings can be a way to save your system. When the BIOS boots your computer, it first determines whether all attachments are in place and operational, and then loads the operating system (or key parts) from your computer’s RAM .
Examples of BIOS applications
1. Manage essential system functions
2. Identify, test and provide quick reports of all major device hardware
3. Boot the operating system from the hard drive
From the above, it can be concluded that with the BIOS , the operating system and its applications are separated from the need to understand the exact details (such as hardware addresses) about the connected input / output devices. When the device details change, only the BIOS should change. Sometimes you can make this change while setting up your system. However, neither your operating system nor the applications you use need to be changed.
Although the BIOS is theoretically always a shortcut to microprocessor and device control information and data input / output and data flow, in some cases, it can arrange direct data flow to memory.
How to enter BIOS settings
Most systems usually enter the BIOS by pressing the Delete key on the keyboard before booting up and launching the operating system , but sometimes manufacturers consider other keys to launch the BIOS that the system tells you. Whichever button you hit, if Delete does not take you to the BIOS, test the F1 , F2 or Space buttons.
Introducing BIOS types
The evolution of the BIOS over time has been as follows:
ROM-Read Only Memory
EEPROM – Electrically EPROM
ROM -Read Only Memory
This model, as its name implies, is read-only and not programmable or erasable.
This type of ROM can be reprogrammed using a special device called a PROM programmer. In general, PROMs can only be edited / updated once, they are generated blank, and depending on the technology they can be programmed in the wafer, finalized, or programmed. Blank PROM chips are programmed by connecting them to a device called a PROM programmer. The availability of this technology enables companies to maintain the supply of PROMs in stock and plan them at the last minute to avoid large volume commitments. This model is most often used in microcontrollers, video game consoles, mobile phones, radio frequency identification labels ( RFID).), Programmable medical devices, high quality multimedia interfaces ( HDMi ) and many other consumer and automotive electronics products.
The content of this type of ROM can be cleared with ultraviolet light and then programmed by an RPROM programmer. This method can be done several times; But constant erasing and rewriting ultimately renders the chip useless. EPROM (rarely EROM) or programmable readable erasable memory is a type of memory chip that retains its information when its power supply is turned off. Computer memory that can turn off and restore stored data after energy is stored. The set consists of a floating gate transistor programmed separately by an electronic device that supplies a higher voltage than that used in conventional digital circuits. After planning, EPROMIt can be cleaned by placing it in a strong ultraviolet light source (such as a mercury vapor lamp). EPROMs can be detected by a transparent quartz box washed on top of the package, through which silicon is visible.
EEPROM – Electrically EPROM
This type of ROM acts like a flash drive and its contents can be erased without the need to remove the chip, the EEPROM environment is used to store the BIOS of the computer system and can be updated without returning the unit to the factory. In many cases, BIOS updates can be performed by computer users. EEPROM also means E2PROM stands for programmable, erasable, electrically erasable memory, and is a type of volatile memory used in computers, microcontrollers for smart cards, wireless keyless systems, and other electronic devices for It can be used to store relatively small amounts of data.
EEPROMs are organized as floating gate transistor arrays and can be programmed and cleared into the circuit using special programming signals. Initially, EEPROMs were limited to single-byte operations, which slowed them down, but modern EEPROMs allow multi-byte page operations. EEPROM has a limited lifespan for clearing and reprogramming.
Flash memory is a completely new example of a type of storage technology called solid state devices. This type of portable storage is very popular compared to its competitors due to its low price and storage capacity, for example floppy disk
Solid state devices are considered strong and reliable because they do not have moving parts with information stored in semiconductor chips. This technology is currently used in the form of flash memory, which is used to store the Basic Input / Output System (BIOS) of a motherboard.
Unlike ROM , flash memory is capable of reading and writing, and unlike RAM, it needs the power to store its data.
Although these devices usually cannot hold as much data as hard disks, CD-ROMs and DVDs, their storage capacity is constantly increasing.
Common applications for solid state drives include digital cameras, camcorders, and digital personal assistants. Solid state disks can also be used to transfer data from computer to computer.
Most solid state drives can be connected to a USB port , but some discs must be inserted into a dedicated drive or card reader. There are four common formats for hard disk mode. They use the same technology, but differ in physical format and user interface.
USB Flash Drive
Over time, with the changes that have taken place in the BIOS, its capabilities have also changed and increased, and today common firmwares are available with the following capabilities:
2 Mbit – 256 KByte
3 Mbit – 384 KByte
4 Mbit – 512 KByte
8 Mbit – 1024 Kbyte
2048 Kbyte – 16 Mbit
BIOS capacity can be detected from the model inserted on it.
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