What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?

What is the Internet of Things (IoT)?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items that use electronic circuits, software, sensors, and mechanical actuators that are all connected to the Internet.


This connection allows these objects to connect to each other and exchange information, thus creating more opportunities for direct integration of the real world within computer systems, thereby increasing efficiency and economic benefits. Reduces physical work for humans.

In 2017, the number of IoT devices increased by 31% compared to the previous year and reached 8.4 billion devices, and it is estimated that this number will reach 30 billion devices by 2020. The global IoT market value is projected to reach $ 1.7 trillion by 2020.

IoT involves extending the Internet connection to devices beyond the usual devices, such as desktops, laptops, smartphones, and tablets, and extending it to non-smart devices without Internet access. Devices that use this technology can communicate and interact with each other over the Internet; They can also be monitored and controlled remotely.

IoT History

The definition of the Internet of Things has evolved due to the convergence of different technologies, instant analysis, machine learning, various sensors as hidden goods and systems. Common areas such as embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, automation (including home automation and building automation), and more all contribute to the use of the Internet of Things.

The concept of a network of smart devices has been around since 1982, when a modified Coca-Cola car at Carnegie Mellon University became the first Internet-connected device. The device was able to report the inventory of its beverages and whether the beverages that had just arrived were cool. Mark Weiser’s 1991 paper on computing, The Twenty-first Century Computer, as well as scientific events such as UbiComp and PerCom, provided a contemporary perspective on the Internet of Things. In 1994, Reza Raji described the concept in the IEEE Spectrum journal as “moving small packets of data to a large set of nodes to integrate and automate everything from home appliances to factories.” Between 1993 and 1996, several companies offered various solutions, such as Microsoft’s At Work project or Novel’s NEST.

The term IoT was probably first coined in 1999 by Kevin Ashton of Procter & Gamble and later of the MIT branch of the Auto-ID Center. Of course, he prefers the phrase “Internet of Things.” At the time, he considered RFID necessary for the Internet of Things because RFID allowed computers to control everything.

In June 2002, a research paper referring to the Internet of Things was submitted for use at the Nordic Researchers in Logistics conference in Norway. An article in Finnish was previously published in January 2002. The implementation described in this paper was developed by Kary Främling and his team at Helsinki University of Technology and is more in line with the modern definition of the Internet of Things, an information system infrastructure for implementing intelligent and interconnected objects.

By simply defining the Internet of Things as “when the number of things or objects connected to the Internet exceeds the number of people connected to it,” Cisco estimates that the IoT was born between 2008 and 2009. The ratio of objects to people connected to the Internet has increased from 0.08 in 2003 to 1.84 in 2010.

IoT applications

The comprehensive set of different IoT applications is often divided into three groups: consumer, corporate, and infrastructure.

Consumer applications

An increasing number of IoT devices are being developed for consumer applications. This category includes Internet-connected vehicles, home automation or smart homes, wearable technologies, health tools, and remote monitoring devices.

smart House

IoT devices are part of the larger concept of home automation, which includes lighting, heating and air conditioning systems, media and security systems. The long-term benefits of this automation include saving energy by ensuring that lighting and electronics are turned off.


A Nest learning thermostat that reports local energy consumption and climate

Corporate applications

The term “corporate Internet of Things” refers to devices used in corporate and office environments. It is estimated that by 2019, the company will have 9.1 billion IoT devices.

Infrastructure applications

Monitoring and controlling the performance of urban and rural infrastructure such as bridges, train tracks, land and sea wind farms is one of the key applications of the Internet of Things. IoT infrastructures can be used to monitor any event or change in structural status, which could compromise the safety of the structure and increase its risk. IoT can greatly help the construction industry by saving costs, reducing time, improving the quality of working days, paperless workflow and increasing productivity. It can also help you make faster decisions and reduce costs by analyzing data instantly. IoT can be used to plan maintenance activities in a cost-effective manner. This is done by coordinating tasks between different service providers and users of these facilities. In addition, IoT devices can be used to control critical infrastructure such as bridges to allow ships to access. The use of IoT devices to monitor and control infrastructure is likely to improve accident management and response coordination, service quality, uptime, and reduce operating costs in all areas of infrastructure. Even areas such as waste management can benefit from the automation and optimization provided by the Internet of Things.


IoT can seamlessly integrate different manufacturing devices that have the capabilities to detect, identify, process, communicate, deploy, and network. Such an intelligent and integrated cyber-physical space opens the way for new production opportunities in the market. Network control and production devices, asset and status management or production process control all bring IoT into the realm of industrial applications and intelligent manufacturing. IoT intelligent systems enable the rapid production of new products, a dynamic response to product demand, instant production optimization, and supply chain networks by networking machines, sensors, and control systems side by side.

Digital control systems for automation of process control and operator tools and service information systems used to optimize factory safety and security are all within the realm of IoT. But it also expands into asset management through predictive maintenance, statistical assessments, and measurements, all aimed at increasing reliability. Intelligent industrial management systems can also be integrated with smart grids to benefit from instantaneous energy efficiency. Measurements, automated controls, factory optimization, safety and health management, and other functions are all provided through a large number of networked sensors.

The term Industrial IoT (IIoT) is often used in the manufacturing industry to refer to the IoT industrial subset. In manufacturing, the IIoT can produce enough business value to eventually lead to the fourth industrial revolution, called industry 4.0. It is estimated that in the future, successful companies will be able to increase their revenue using the Internet of Things. This is done by creating new business models and improving productivity, utilizing analytics to innovate and transform the workforce. The potential growth from the implementation of the IIoT will generate $ 12 trillion in world GDP by 2030.

Although Internet connection and data acquisition are essential for IIoT, they should not be seen as a goal but as a basis and path to something bigger. Of all the technologies, predictive maintenance seems the most attractive because it can be implemented on existing assets and management systems. The goal of intelligent maintenance systems is to reduce unexpected downtime and increase productivity. Making this a reality alone will reduce maintenance costs by up to 30%. Macroeconomic data analysis will play a key role in predictive maintenance of manufacturing assets. Of course, this is not the only capability of big industrial data. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are the core technology of industrial big data and will, in fact, be the link between humans and the virtual world. Cyber-physical systems can be designed using 5C architecture (connection, conversion, cyber, cognition and configuration). These systems convert the collected data into information that can be acted upon and, ultimately, intervene to optimize processes in physical assets.

An intelligent IoT-enabled system for such cases was proposed in 2001 and later in 2014 by the Industrial / Academic Research Center of the National Science Foundation for Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS) at the University of Cincinnati at the 2014 IMTS Exhibition in Chicago. Exposed on a band saw. Band saws are not necessarily expensive, but the cost of band saws is very high because they break down very quickly. However, without the use of intelligent diagnostic and analysis tools, only experience can be used to estimate when a band saw blade will break. The developed fault prediction system can detect and monitor the extent of saw blade belt loss (even when the situation is changing) and suggest the best time for the belt to be replaced.Production system design architecture that also uses cyber-physical systems

Internet of Things in Agriculture

There are several applications of IoT in agriculture, such as collecting data on temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest contamination, and soil content. These data can be used to automate agricultural practices, make informed decisions to improve the quality and quantity of crops, minimize risk and waste, and reduce the hassle of managing crops. For example, farmers can now monitor soil temperature and humidity remotely, or even use data obtained through the IoT to increase the accuracy of soil fertility programs.

Energy Management

A large number of energy-consuming devices (switches, sockets, light bulbs, televisions, etc.) have Internet connectivity, which allows them to work with power generation and distribution companies.Communicate and thus balance power generation and energy consumption and optimize energy consumption in general. These devices can be remotely controlled by users or centrally managed through a cloud interface and can use functions such as scheduling (remote switching on or off heating devices, stove control, status change Provide lighting and…). Smart grid is one of the applications of IoT in the field of electricity distribution companies; Systems collect electricity information and use it to increase the efficiency of electricity generation and distribution. Using advanced meter infrastructures (smart meters) connected to the Internet, power generation and distribution companies not only collect information from consumers but can also manage power distribution automation devices such as transformers. کردن.

Environmental monitoring

Environmental monitoring applications of IoT often include the use of sensors to help protect the environment by monitoring water or air quality, weather and soil conditions, or even monitoring wildlife movements and changes in their habitat. . The development of limited-resource devices connected to the Internet means that emergency services can use other applications, such as earthquake and tsunami alert systems, to provide more effective assistance. IoT devices in this type of application usually cover a wide geographical area and also have the ability to move. It is believed that the standardization that IoT brings to the field of wireless detection could revolutionize it.

Building and home automation

In the field of home automation and building automation, IoT devices can be used to monitor and control mechanical, electrical, and electronic systems in a variety of buildings (public or private, industrial, institutional, or residential). In this regard, three main topics in the subject literature have been examined:

  • Integrating the Internet with building energy management systems to create “smart buildings” that are high in IoT and energy efficient
  • Possible tools for immediate monitoring to reduce energy consumption and monitor the behavior of people inside the building
  • Integration of smart devices in the built environment and how to use them in future applications

Use on a metropolitan scale

Currently, several large-scale uses of IoT are planned or underway. This allows us to better manage cities and systems. For example, the city of Songdo in South Korea is the first fully equipped and fully connected smart city of its kind, which is being built gradually, and by June 2018, about 70% of its commercial part has been built. Many parts of the city are programmed to operate automatically when connected to the Internet and do not require human intervention, or this intervention is minimal.

Another use is a project running in Santander, Spain. Two approaches were adopted for this project. In this city of 180,000 people, so far 18,000 people have downloaded the city app for smartphones. The application is connected to 10,000 sensors and allows the use of services such as parking space search, environmental monitoring, digital city meeting minutes and other applications. In this case, the background information of the city is used so that merchants and traders can benefit from it through an instant suggestion mechanism based on the behavior of the city, which aims to maximize the effect of each of the notifications (announcements).

Other large-scale use examples currently under construction include Guangzhou Sino-Singapore Knowledge City in San Jose, California, to improve air and water quality, reduce noise pollution, and increase vehicle efficiency. And works in the western part of Singapore in the field of intelligent traffic management. In 2014, French company Sigfox began building an ultra-narrowband wireless data network in the San Francisco Bay Area, becoming the first business to do so in the United States. It was further announced that by the end of 2016, the company will build a total of 4,000 base stations (BTS) that will cover 30 cities. This makes the company the largest provider of IoT coverage in the United States.

Another example of large-scale use is the New York Waterways transportation company in New York City, which connects all of the city’s ships to the Internet so that it can monitor them live at all times. The network was designed and implemented by Fluidmesh, a Chicago-based wireless networking development company. The NYWW network currently covers the Hudson River, East River and Upper New York Bay areas. With the help of this wireless network, NY Waterway can control its fleet and passengers in a way that was not previously possible. New applications include security, energy and fleet management, digital displays, public Wi-Fi, non-paper tickets, and more.


Other fields of application

Health and Medicine

Future Outlook It looks like soon, you will share with your doctor the amount of exercise, heart rate, various activities and other essential data collected by your mobile phone. “More and more care is being provided outside of hospitals and clinics.” This means that as the number of patients cared for at home, in nursing homes or other centers increases, portable devices, from smartphones to surveillance devices, will become increasingly important. کرد. IoT devices can be used to monitor the patient remotely or the emergency notification system. These health monitoring devices can range from blood pressure and heart rate monitors to advanced devices that can monitor the function of devices located in the human body, such as heart rate monitors, electronic wristbands. Fitbit or advanced hearing aids to control, included. Some hospitals have started using smart beds that can detect when a patient is lying on them or when they are about to get out of bed. These beds can also be adjusted automatically to apply proper pressure and support to the patient without the need for manual adjustment by nurses. A 2015 report by Goldman Sachs notes that IoT-enabled health devices can save up to $ 300 billion a year in health care costs. This is done by increasing revenue and reducing costs related to this sector. Even recent research has referred to IoT solutions for healthcare uses as the “Internet of Things”.

It is also possible to install special sensors in the living space of people who monitor the health and general condition of the elderly, as well as the arrival of appropriate and adequate treatment to them or help people who have lost their ability to move. Ensure. Other consumer devices, such as Internet-connected scales or wearable heart rate monitors, which are used to promote healthy living, have also become a reality thanks to the IoT. End-to-end IoT health monitoring platforms are also available for pregnant or chronically ill patients, allowing physicians to monitor their vital signs and medication needs.

DEKA, whose main business is the production of artificial limbs, has been able to produce a prosthetic hand that works with batteries and uses myoelectricity. This device converts a set of senses of muscle groups into movement control and is named after Luke Skywalker (from Star Wars), named after Luke.

Elderly care

One of the key uses of a smart home is to help people with disabilities or the elderly. These home systems use assistive technologies to address specific disabilities of the device owner. Voice control can help users with visual and motor limitations. At the same time, alarm systems can be connected directly to cochlear implants used for people with hearing impairments. These devices can also be equipped with additional security features. These features include sensors that detect medical emergencies such as loss of balance or seizures. Using smart home technology in this way can give people more freedom and quality of life.


The Internet of Things can help integrate communication, control, and information processing across different transportation systems. The application of IoT extends to all aspects of transportation systems (vehicles, infrastructure, and the user or driver). Dynamic interaction between these components of a transportation system enables communication between and within vehicles, intelligent traffic control, intelligent parking, electronic toll collection, logistics and fleet management, automatic vehicle control and safety and route issues . For example, in the field of logistics and fleet management, the IoT can continuously monitor the position and conditions of shipments and assets via wireless sensors, and in the event of management exceptions (delays, damage, theft, etc.) ) Send specific alerts.

Trends and Features

The main visible trend in the field of Internet of Things in recent years has been the explosive growth of devices connected and controlled by the Internet. The wide range of applications of IoT technology means that the features of each device can be different from the other, but there are basic features that are the same among most devices.


Limit intelligence and self-control are not part of the basic concept of the Internet of Things. Limit intelligence and self-control do not necessarily require Internet structures. Recent trends, however, show that in companies such as Intel, the tendency to research into the integration of IoT concepts and self-control has shifted, and preliminary results suggest that IoT is the driving force behind the IoT. Have been considered.

In the future, the Internet of Things may become an uncertain, open network in which intelligent entities (web services, service-oriented architectural components) and virtual objects (avatars) can be used by different systems, depending on the circumstances. And the environment, they can act independently (towards their own goals or towards common goals). Self-governing behavior through the collection and reasoning of background information, as well as the object’s ability to detect changes in the environment (sensor failure) and take mitigation measures, form a major part of the current research process that is essential for IoT validation.

New IoT products and solutions on the market use a variety of technologies to support such ground-based automation, but to enable the use of sensor units and intelligent cyber-physical systems in real-world environments in complex ways. More intelligence is needed.


The system is likely to be an example of a bottom-up, event-based architecture (based on the context of processes and operations and instantaneous) and will consider any sub-level. As a result, model-based and application-based approaches may coexist or even be replaced by newer, more dynamic, and data-driven architectures.

In an IoT, the meaning of an event will not necessarily be based on a definite or syntactic model, but can be based on the context of the event itself. This will also be a semantic web. As a result, it will not necessarily require common standards that cannot cover all areas and functions: some elements (services, components, and avatars) will be self-referenced and, if necessary, self-standardized. The existing ones adapt (predicting everything will be nothing more than defining a “global certainty” for anything that is not possible using any of the current top-down approaches and standardizations).

Based on the Internet of Things, IoT is an IoT application architecture that seeks to integrate data from IoT devices into web applications that can create innovative applications. In order to plan and control the flow of information in the IoT, one of the envisaged architectural directions is called Business Process Management Everywhere (BPM Everywhere), which is a combination of traditional process management, process extraction and special capabilities to Can automatically control a large number of synchronized devices.

Network architecture

The Internet of Things needs tremendous scalability in terms of network space to cope with the drastic increase in the number of devices. IETF 6LoWPAN is used to connect devices to IP networks. With billions of Internet devices being added, IPv6 اساسی will play a key role in managing the scalability of the network layer. Restricted application protocols IETF, ZeroMQ and MQTT allow light data transport. MQ in MQTT comes from IBM’s MQ message queuing product line.

Foggy calculations are a reliable option to prevent such a huge amount of information from flowing through the Internet. The computing power of edge devices can be used to analyze and process information, thus providing instant and easy scalability.

Size considerations

The Internet of Things will encrypt 50,000 to 100,000 billion objects and track their movements. Humans mapped in urban environments are each surrounded by 1,000 to 5,000 traceable objects. In 2015, there were 83 million smart devices in people’s homes. This number will increase to 193 million by 2020 and will certainly continue to grow in the near future.

The number of devices with internet connectivity increased by 31% from 2016 to 2017, reaching 8.4 billion devices.

Space considerations

In the Internet of Things, the exact geographical location of an object as well as its exact geographical dimensions will be critical. As a result, tracking the facts about an object, such as its position in space and time, is less important because the person processing the information can decide whether the information is relevant to the action being performed and if so. Importance, can decide to add this information (or not take action). In this regard, it is better to remember that some objects in the IoT are sensors, and usually, the location of the sensors is important. . GeoWeb and Digital Earth are promising applications that will be possible when things are organized and connected to each other through location. However, remaining challenges include constraints on the spatial scale of variables, the need to deal with large amounts of data, and cataloging for fast search and neighbor operations. In the Internet of Things, if objects can act on their own initiative, the role of human mediation will disappear. In this information ecosystem, then, the space-time context that we humans take for granted must play a central role. Just as standards play a key role in the Internet and the Web, so do spatial standards play a key role in the Internet of Things.

Solution to a problem

Many IoT devices have the potential to capture market share. Jean-Louis Gassée (one of Apple’s first graduates and one of the founders of BeOS) mentioned this in an article in Monday Note, in which he predicted that the most probable problem was what he called the “portfolio of devices.” “Remote control.” This problem means that we have hundreds of programs to interact with hundreds of devices that do not have common protocols for communicating with each other. To improve user interaction, some tech leaders are teaming up to create communication standards between devices to solve this problem. Others have turned to the concept of predictive device interaction, in which “the data collected is used to predict and initiate various tasks on specific devices” and force them to work together.


IoT frameworks can help support the interaction between objects and enable the creation of more complex structures such as distributed computing and distributed applications. At present, some IoT frameworks seem to focus on instantaneous data entry solutions, thus creating a basis for working with large numbers of objects and making them interact with each other. Future developments could lead to integrated software development environments that can be used to develop software compatible with IoT hardware. Companies are developing technology platforms that can provide such functions for the Internet of Things. Newer platforms are also being developed that add more intelligence to the system.

REST is a scalable architecture that allows objects to communicate with each other via the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, and IoT applications easily use it to communicate between an object and a central web server.

Necessary technologies for the Internet of Things

There are many technologies that make it possible to use IoT. One of the essentials for this is the network used to communicate between the devices of an IoT. This role is played by various wireless or wired technologies.


The original idea of ​​the Auto-ID Center was based on RFID tags and unique identification through the product’s electronic code, but the idea evolved into objects with an IP address or URI. Another view, coming from the world of the Semantic Web, focuses on turning all objects (not just electronic, intelligent, or RFID-enabled objects) into addressable form through existing naming protocols such as URIs. Objects do not speak for themselves, but can be addressed by other intermediaries, such as powerful centralized servers that act on their human owners. Internet integration refers to the concept that devices will use an IP address as a unique identifier. Given the limited IPv4 addressing space (which allows for up to 3.4 billion unique addresses), objects in the IoT must use the next generation of the IPv6 Internet Protocol to be able to cope with a very large address space. Need to coordinate. In addition, IoT devices also benefit from the stateless automatic address configuration found in IPv6, as this will reduce the overhead of configuration on the host and 6LoWPAN compression. In fact, to a large extent, the IoT future would not be possible without IPv6 support, and as a result, the global use of IPv6 in the coming years will be essential for the successful development of IoT in the future.

Wireless short range

  • Bluetooth mesh network – Specifications that create a different mesh network with more nodes and a standardized application layer than Bluetooth Low Energy
  • Li-Fi – Wireless communication technology that is similar to the Wi-Fi standard but uses visible light communications to increase bandwidth
  • NFC – Communication protocols that allow two electronic devices to communicate with each other at a distance of 4 cm.
  • QR Codes and Barcodes – Optical labels that are machine-readable and store information about the product to which they are attached.
  • RFID – Technology that uses electromagnetic fields to read data stored on labels embedded in various goods
  • Thread – Network protocol based on IEEE 802.15.4 standard, similar to ZigBee and IPv6 addressable
  • Transfer Layer Security Protocol – Network Security Protocol
  • Wi-Fi – A technology for local area networks based on the IEEE 802.11 standard where devices can communicate with each other through a shared access point or directly and without intermediaries
  • Z-Wave – A communication protocol that allows the transmission of data with a short range and time delay at lower rates and power consumption than Wi-Fi. This protocol is mainly used for home automation
  • ZigBee – Communication protocols for personal networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard with low power consumption, low data transfer rate, low cost and high throughput

Wireless shortcut

  •  HaLow – Wi-FI standard modified mode that provides more range for low power and low transmission rates
  • LTE-Advanced – High-speed communication specifications used for mobile networks. This specification makes changes to the LTE standard that increase range, increase throughput, and reduce latency.

Wireless Long Range

  • LPWAN – Wireless networks designed to enable long-distance communication at low data rates and reduce the power and costs required to transmit data. LPWAN technologies and protocols include: LoRaWan, Sigfox, NB-IoT, Weightless
  • VSAT – Satellite Communication Technology Using Small Dishes for Narrow and Broadband Data
  • Wi-Fi far away

Wired connection

  • Ethernet – a general-purpose network standard that uses a twisted pair and optical fiber with network hubs and switches
  • MoCA – Specifications that allow HD videos and content to be distributed throughout the home. This is done through existing coaxial cables.
  • PLC – a communication technology that uses electrical wiring to transmit power and data. Specifications such as HomePlug or G.hn use PLC to network IoT devices

Standards and standardization organizations

The following is a list of technical standards for IoT with organizations that aim to successfully set those standards. Most of these standards are open standards.

Short name full name Developing standards Other points
Auto-ID Labs Auto Identification Center Networked RFID and emerging diagnostic technologies
EPCglobal Electronic product code technology Standards for the use of electronic product code (EPC) technology
FDA American Food and Drug Administration UDI system for unique detectors of medical devices
GS1 Standards for Unique Identifiers (UID) and RFID for Consumer Goods, Health Products and Other Goods The main organization, which includes members such as GS1 US
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Designer of existing communication technology standards such as IEEE 802.15.4
IETF Internet Engineering Working Group Standards that include TCP / IP
MTConnect Institute MTConnect is a standard for the manufacturing industry in the exchange of information with machine tools and other industrial equipment. This standard is important for the IoT sub-branch of the Internet of Things.
O-DF Open Data Format O-DF is a standard released in 2014 by The Open Group Consortium IoT Working Group. This standard specifies the structure of the general information model, which can be used to describe any “object”, and if used in conjunction with the O-MI standard, it can be used for publishing, updating. And used information query.
O-MI Open Messaging Interface O-MI is a standard published in 2014 by the IoT Working Group of the Open Group Consortium, which defines a limited set of key operations required in the IoT, which can be illustrated by a variety of mechanisms. Subscribed based on the observer pattern.
OCF Open Connectivity Foundation Standards for simple devices that use CoAP (Restricted Application Protocol) OCF replaces OIC
OMA Open Mobile Alliance OMA-DM and OMA LWM2M for managing IoT devices as well as GotAPI which provides a secure framework for IoT applications
XSF XMPP Standards Foundation Extension of XMPP protocols, which is the standard for instant messaging

Political issues and civic participation

Some researchers and activists believe that if device networks are open to user control and interactive platforms, IoT could be used to build new models of civic engagement. Writer and university professor Philip Howard writes that political life in democratic governments and authoritarian regimes will be shaped by how the IoT is used for civic participation. For this to happen, he believes, every device connected to the Internet must be able to reveal the list of “end users” who benefit from the device’s sensor data, and citizens must be able to access new organizations. Add a list of users. In addition, he believes, civil society groups need to start developing their own IoT strategies so that they can use the data and interact with people.

Government regulations in the field of IoT

One of the main drivers of the IoT is data. The success of the idea of ​​connecting devices to increase their efficiency depends on accessing, storing and processing information. For this purpose, companies operating in the field of IoT collect data from various sources and store it for further processing in their cloud network. This paves the way for privacy and security threats and single-point vulnerabilities of multiple systems. Other problems are related to consumer choice and data ownership and how to use them. Although regulations and oversight of issues such as privacy, security and data ownership are still in their infancy, these regulations are constantly evolving. IoT regulations depend on the country. Some examples of privacy and data collection laws include:

A report released by the Federal Trade Commission in January 2015 outlined the following three recommendations:

  • Data Security – When designing an IoT, companies must ensure that information is collected, stored and processed securely at all times. Companies must use the “deep defense” approach and encrypt data at every step.
  • Data Satisfaction – Users should have the choice of what data to share with IoT companies, and should be notified if user information is compromised.
  • Data minimization – IoT companies should only collect the information they need, and they should only keep the information collected for a limited time.

However, so far the FTC has only advanced to the advisory stage. According to an FTC analysis, فع the current framework, which consists of the FTC Bill, the Fair Credit Report Bill, and the Cyber ​​Child Privacy Bill, along with the development of consumer education and business guidance programs, Multi-stakeholder efforts and advising services to various organizations at the federal, state and local levels will suffice to protect consumer rights.

A resolution passed by the Senate in March 2015 is currently being considered by Congress. The resolution recognizes the need to develop a general IoT policy on privacy and security. In addition, in order to motivate the IoT ecosystem, in March 2016, a bipartisan group of four senators proposed to the Senate a bill called IoT Development Innovation, which required the Federal Communications Commission to To assess the need for more spectrum to connect IoT devices.

Several IoT industry standards are currently used in the automotive industry, as most concerns about the use of Internet-connected vehicles also relate to health-related devices. In fact, NHTSA is preparing cybersecurity guidelines and a database of best practices to make car computer systems more secure.

A recent World Bank report examines the challenges and opportunities of using the Internet of Things in governments, including:

  • Not much time has passed since the use of IoT in governments
  • Policy and regulatory frameworks are underdeveloped.
  • Despite high value propositions, business models are not transparent
  • In terms of organization and capacity, there is a big difference between government and the private sector
  • Evaluate and manage data without stability
  • A big obstacle called infrastructure
  • The role of government as a facilitator of IoT
  • The most successful pilot-scale implementations have common characteristics (public-private partnership, locality, leadership)

Criticism and controversy

Fragmentation of platforms

The IoT suffers from fragmentation of platforms and a lack of technical standards. Platform fragmentation refers to the state in which different IoT devices, both in terms of hardware and software running on them, develop applications that work coherently between incoherent technology ecosystems. Make it difficult. Customers may be reluctant to invest in proprietary software or hardware devices that use proprietary protocols, as such software or devices may be phased out of the market over time, or personalized and communicated with. Other devices become difficult for them.

The nature of IoT computing is also a security issue because patches provided for bugs in the operating system kernel often do not reach users of older or cheaper devices. A series of studies suggest that manufacturers’ inability to support older devices through patches and updates has made about 87% of active Android devices vulnerable.

Privacy, authority and control

Philip Howard, author and university professor, writes that the Internet of Things has great potential for empowering citizens, making government more transparent, and expanding access to information. However, Howard warns that threats to privacy, the potential for social control and political abuses are also huge.

Privacy concerns have led many to think that big data infrastructures, such as the Internet of Things or data mining, are inherently incompatible with privacy. The American author Adam Greenfield claims that these technologies not only invade public space but are also used to perpetuate normative behaviors. To cite this, he cites a case in which a number of billboards equipped with hidden cameras surveyed the demographics of people who stopped to read advertisements.

The IoT Council compares the increasing prevalence of digital surveillance due to the Internet of Things with the concept of universal structure introduced by Jeremy Bentham in the eighteenth century. This claim was defended by the works of the French philosophers Michel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze. In Care and Punishment: The Birth of Prison, Foucault claims that the ubiquitous was the central element of care developed by society during the Industrial Revolution. Foucault also believed that the surveillance systems set up in factories and schools were all a reflection of Bentham’s global perspective. Deleuze, in his 1992 article entitled “Explanations of Control Communities,” writes that the caregiver community has become a control society, and that the computer as a tool of care and control has replaced the whole world, and at the same time, qualities similar to It has also maintained its universality.

The privacy of households can be compromised only by examining the traffic pattern of the smart home consumer network without having to explain the encrypted content of the application information. However, a synthetic package injection scheme can be used to safely prevent such a privacy breach.

Peter-Pavel Verbick, a professor of technology philosophy at the University of Twente in the Netherlands, writes that technology still influences our moral decisions, which in turn affects agency, privacy and human agency. He warns that technology should not be seen only as a tool for humans, but also as an active factor.

Justin Brookman, of the Center for Democracy and Technology, expressed concern about the impact of the IoT on consumer privacy, saying, “There are people in the business community who say, ‘Oh, big data…, let’s collect everything and Always keep; Later we give someone money to think about their safety. “The question is, do we want to have a policy framework that limits this?”

The O’Reilly team believes that the way companies sell IoT devices to consumers is incorrect. He denies that the IoT is designed solely to increase productivity by connecting all types of devices to the Internet, and argues that the main purpose of the IoT is to overcome the limitations of the human body. When sensors and data are the main decision makers, IoT applications will be completely different.

The editorial board of WIRED magazine has also raised concerns about this issue. “You are going to lose your privacy,” said one member. In fact even worse. “You will not only lose your privacy, but you will have to look at rewriting the concept of privacy in front of your eyes.”

The American Civil Liberties Union has also expressed concern about the IoT’s ability to erode human control over their own lives. “There is really no way to predict how these huge powers, which are unevenly accumulated in the hands of companies seeking economic supremacy and governments seeking greater control, will be used,” the union writes. . It is likely that big data and the Internet of Things will make it harder for us to control our lives as we become clearer and more transparent to powerful companies and governments while they act more vaguely to us. They will. ”

In response to growing concerns about privacy and smart technologies, in 2007 the British government announced that it would formally adhere to the principles of privacy by design in the implementation of its smart meters program. . The program will replace traditional electricity meters with smart electricity meters that can more accurately measure and manage energy consumption. However, the British computer society doubts that these principles have been used at all. In 2009, the Dutch parliament rejected a similar smart meter program, citing privacy concerns. The Dutch program was further reviewed and approved by parliament in 2011.

Save data

One of the challenges facing IoT programmers is cleaning, processing, and interpreting large amounts of information collected by sensors. To analyze the information obtained, a solution called wireless sensor networks is proposed. These networks share data between sensor nodes, which are sent to a distributed system to analyze sensor data.

Another challenge is to store this large amount of data. Depending on the application and application, high-rate data collection may be required, which in turn will require more storage space. The Internet now accounts for 5 percent of the energy produced, and there is still the daunting challenge of calling IoT devices the power to collect and store information.


Concerns have been raised that the IoT is evolving rapidly without taking into account the existing serious security challenges and regulatory changes that may be required. Most of the technical concerns are similar to those of regular servers, workstations, and smartphones, but IoT-specific security challenges are also evolving. These challenges include industrial security controls, hybrid systems, IoT-specific business processes, and end-to-end nodes.

According to a survey conducted by Business Insider in the last quarter of 2014, 39% of respondents said that security is their biggest concern in using IoT technology. Specifically, with the proliferation of the Internet of Things, cyberattacks are likely to become an increasingly real threat. In an article published in the January issue of Forbes magazine, Joseph Steinberg, author of Cybersecurity, identifies many Internet-connected home appliances that can now be spied on in people’s homes (such as televisions). Kitchen appliances, cameras and thermostats). Computer-controlled devices in vehicles (such as brakes, engines, locks, trunk and hood locks, horns, heating systems, and dashboards) have been shown to attack attackers accessing the on-board network. , Are vulnerable. In some cases, ماشین car computer systems are connected to the Internet, which also allows them to be abused remotely. Since 2008, security researchers have been able to demonstrate that they can remotely control heart rate regulators without permission. Hackers later proved their ability to remotely control insulin pumps and implantable shock devices (ICDs). David Pogg, an American author, believes that recent reports on the remote control of some car functions by hackers are not very serious due to some mitigating factors. For example, the bug that allowed the hack was fixed before the report was published, or the hack required security investigators to have physical access to the machine in order to prepare for the hack. Since 2008, security researchers have been able to demonstrate that they can remotely control heart rate regulators without permission. Hackers later proved their ability to remotely control insulin pumps and implantable shock devices (ICDs). David Pogg, an American author, believes that recent reports on the remote control of some of the functions of cars by hackers are not very serious due to some mitigating factors. For example, the bug that enabled the hack was fixed before the report was published, or the hack required security investigators to have physical access to the machine in order to prepare for the hack. Since 2008, security researchers have been able to demonstrate that they can remotely control heart rate regulators without permission. Hackers later proved their ability to remotely control insulin pumps and implantable shock devices (ICDs). David Pogg, an American author, believes that recent reports on the remote control of some of the functions of cars by hackers are not very serious due to some mitigating factors. For example, the bug that allowed the hack was fixed before the report was published, or the hack required security investigators to have physical access to the machine in order to prepare for the hack. David Pogg, an American author, believes that recent reports on the remote control of some of the functions of cars by hackers are not very serious due to some mitigating factors. For example, the bug that allowed the hack was fixed before the report was published, or the hack required security investigators to have physical access to the machine in order to prepare for the hack. David Pogg, an American author, believes that recent reports on the remote control of some of the functions of cars by hackers are not very serious due to some mitigating factors. For example, the bug that allowed the hack was fixed before the report was published, or the hack required security investigators to have physical access to the machine in order to prepare for the hack.

In a non-confidential report, the US National Intelligence Council notes that it will be difficult to prevent US enemies, criminals and villains from gaining access to sensor networks and remote control objects. A free market for sensor data collected will allow spies and criminals to identify vulnerable targets as much as it does business and security. Thus, if it is proved that the massive parallel combination of sensors is essentially incompatible with the Fourth Amendment to the Constitution for unreasonable inspections, it may disrupt social cohesion. In general, the information society views the IoT as a rich source of information.

In response to growing security concerns, the Internet of Things Foundation (IoTSF) launched on September 23, 2015. The mission of the IoTSF is to secure the Internet of Things by raising awareness and how to use it properly. The founding board of this foundation consists of technology service providers and telecommunication companies such as BT, Vodafone, Imagination Technologies and Pen Test Partners. In addition, large IT companies are constantly developing innovative solutions to ensure the security of IoT devices. According to estimates by KBV Research, the overall IoT security market will grow at a rate of 27.9% between 2016 and 2022, due to growing infrastructure concerns and various IoT applications.

In 2016, a distributed deprivation of service (DDoS) attack by IoT devices running Mirai malware shut down a DNS provider and a number of major websites. Mirai malware had previously infected about 65,000 IoT devices in just the first 20 hours of playback. Eventually, the number of infections reached 200,000 to 300,000. Brazil, Colombia and Vietnam accounted for about 41% of all infections. Mirai malware targeted specific IoT devices such as DVRs, IP cameras, routers, and printers. The main manufacturers with the highest levels of pollution are Dahua, Huawei, ZTE, Cisco, Zyxel and MikroTik. In 2017, Junade Ali, a computer scientist at CloudFlare, pointed out that there are inherent DDoS vulnerabilities in IoT devices due to poor implementation of the diffusion-sharing pattern.

Although security is still a concern, many measures are currently being taken to protect the devices. The data of these devices follow cryptographic standards and end-to-end encryption is used. To help with these scenarios, x.509 certificates are also used to authenticate devices.

Security experts see the Internet of Things as a threat to the Internet. Some argue that market incentives are not enough to make IoT devices more secure, and that more government regulation is needed to make the IoT secure.

A general understanding of IoT is essential for the security of simple users. Updating antivirus software and using updates will be effective in reducing cyber attacks.

In 2017, it launched the Objects project, which enables access to IoT devices through an IoT web gateway.


Given the widespread understanding of the evolving nature of IoT design and management, و Sustainable and secure implementations of IoT solutions should be designed to include “anarchic scalability”. The application of the concept of disordered scalability can also be extended to physical systems (real controlled objects) because these systems are also designed to include uncertain management futures. Thus, this disordered scalability is a way forward to realize the potential of the Internet of Things by selectively limiting physical systems to allow for different management regimes without physically compromising the system.

Brown Litman, a computer scientist at Brown University, believes that the successful implementation of the Internet of Things requires consideration of the usability of its interface as well as the technology itself. These interfaces should not only be more user-friendly but also more integrated: “If users have to learn different interfaces for their vacuum cleaners, locks, sprinklers, light bulbs and coffee makers, they can no longer. “Their lives have become easier.”

Impact of environmental sustainability

One concern with IoT technology is the environmental impact of production, use, and ultimately the disposal of all semiconductor-rich devices. Modern electronics are full of a variety of heavy metals and rare earth metals as well as highly toxic chemicals. This makes them very difficult to recycle properly. Electronic components are often burned or dumped in landfills. In addition, the human and environmental costs of mining rare earth metals, which are a vital part of modern electronics, continue to rise. This raises social questions about the environmental impact of IoT devices over their lifetime.

Deliberate obsolescence of devices

Electronic Frontiers Foundation that companies can use the technologies needed to support Internet-connected devices to disable or so-called break them through a software update or by disabling a service that works for the device in question. Need, use, have expressed their concerns. For example, when Nest Lab bought Revolv and decided to disconnect the central server used by Revolv devices, the home automation devices sold with the promise of a permanent subscription became unusable. .

Owners should be able to transfer their devices to another server or work with other companies to get better software, but such actions violate Article 1201 of the DMCA Digital Millennium Copyright Act, with only one exception. For local use. This forces people who want to use their own equipment to enter a gray legal area. The Electronic Frontiers Foundation believes that buyers should avoid buying electronic devices and software that give more importance to the demands of the manufacturer than the demands of the customer.

Examples of malicious after-sales tampering include Google Nest Revolv, disabled privacy on Android, disabling Linux on PlayStation 3, and mandatory EULA on Wii U.

Misleading terminology

Kevin Lonergan, author of Information Age magazine, refers to IoT terms as the word zoo. The lack of a clear terminology is not practical and is a source of misleading information for the consumer. A company that works in the field of IoT can be active in various fields such as sensor technology, networking, embedded systems or analytics. According to Lonergan, the term IoT was coined before the smartphones, tablets, and devices we know today, and there is a long list of terms with varying degrees of overlap and technological convergence: the Internet of Things, the Internet of Things (IoE). Industrial Internet, فرا Comprehensive Computing, Comprehensive Detection, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), Smart Objects, Partner Objects, Machine to Machine (M2M), ‌ Environmental Intelligence, Technology Operations (OT) and Information Technology. In the field of Industrial IoT (IIoT), which is a sub-branch of the IoT industry, the Industrial Internet Consortium Selection Working Group has created a list of common and reusable words to ensure that there is no inconsistent terminology among the items published by the Industrial Internet Consortium Find. IoT One has also created a database of IoT-related words, part of which deals with alerting new words and notifying them when a new word is released. As of March 2017, ‌ This database contains 711 words related to the Internet of Things, thus keeping the content published in this field comprehensive and transparent. IoT One has also created a database of IoT-related words, part of which deals with alerting new words and notifying them when a new word is released. As of March 2017, ‌ This database contains 711 IoT-related terms, thus keeping the content published in this field comprehensive and transparent. IoT One has also created a database of IoT-related words, part of which deals with alerting new words and notifying them when a new word is released. As of March 2017, ‌ This database contains 711 IoT-related words, thus keeping the content published in this field comprehensive and transparent.

Barriers to IoT use

Lack of interoperability and unclear value proposition

Despite common belief in the potential of the IoT, industry leaders and consumers face obstacles to using it more. Mike Farley in Forbes Magazine believes that while IoT solutions are appealing to early users, they lack interoperability or clear uses for end users. A study by Ericsson on the use of IoT among Danish companies shows that many of them are unable to determine exactly what the value of IoT is for them.

Privacy and security concerns

According to a recent study by Noura Aleisa and Karen Renaud at the University of Glasgow, “the potential of the Internet of Things is a clear violation of privacy” and most research is “unbalancedly focused on IoT security concerns”. . Among the “solutions proposed in terms of the technologies used and the extent to which they adhere to the basic principles of privacy,” only a few performed quite satisfactorily. Louis Basenese, investment director at the Wall Street Daily, criticized the industry for not paying attention to security issues:

“Despite the big and alarming hacks, device manufacturers have not changed their approach and are focusing on profitability instead of security. “Consumers must have complete control over the data collected so that they can even erase all their data in select images. Without the use of privacy guarantees, widespread use of the Internet of Things will not happen.”

In the post-Snowden world with widespread espionage revelations, consumers are paying more attention to their privacy and want to have I IoT devices monitored for potential security vulnerabilities and privacy breaches before purchasing them. Be taken. According to an Accenture Digital Consumer Survey, in which 28,000 consumers in 28 different countries were asked about their use of technology, “Security from an unpleasant problem to the main obstacle and the reason for leaving IoT devices and services It has been transformed by consumers. ” The survey also found that “among consumers who were aware of hacker attacks and also owned or intended to own IoT devices in the next five years, 18% decided to use the service as long as it was guaranteed.” Enough to get in the field of security, stop.

Traditional regulatory structures

Ericsson’s research on the use of the Internet of Things among Danish companies points to the contradiction between the IoT and traditional corporate governance structures. “The reason for this contradiction is that the IoT still has uncertainties and a lack of historical background.” Sixty percent of those polled said they “do not believe they have organizational capabilities” and 75 percent said they “lack the processes needed to take advantage of an opportunity called IoT.” This has led to the need to understand organizational culture in order to facilitate organizational design processes and test new measures related to innovation management. The lack of digital leadership in the digital age has hampered innovation and the use of IoT to the point that many companies, despite the existing uncertainty, have been “waiting for the market to show its dynamism” or for future IoT action. Competitors’ movement was customer attraction or regulatory needs. Some of these companies were at risk of being coded (Kodak was the market leader in analog film photography until the digital disruption took control of the market with the advent of digital photography) and the inability to see “destructive forces.” Which affects their industry ”and“ the true acceptance of the new business models that these destructive changes bring ”. Scott Anthony writes in the Harvard Business Review that Kodak invented the digital camera, invested in the technology, and even realized that photos would be shared online, but ultimately did not realize that sharing photos online, not to The title is a way to expand the photo printing business, but also a new business.

Business planning and models

According to a study conducted in 2018, 70 to 75% of IoT applications are stuck in the pilot or prototype stage and have not been able to reach the main scale, which is partly due to the lack of business planning.

Research in the literature on IoT topics and projects shows the unbalanced prominence of technology in IoT projects, which often move forward based on technological interventions rather than focusing on business model innovation.