How did the sun and planets take shape today? This is an interesting question, and scientists studying the planets of the solar system are looking for the answer.
There are various theories about the origin of the solar system. It is not surprising that for centuries the earth was considered not only the center of the solar system but also the center of the universe. Naturally, such an understanding made it difficult to guess the origin of life.
Characteristics of the solar system
Any valid theory about the origin of the solar system must be able to describe the properties of the solar system well. The main points that should be mentioned in each theory are as follows:
- The location of the sun in the center of the solar system
- Planets move around the sun counterclockwise (when viewed from the North Pole)
- Location of small rocky worlds (Earth-like planets) closer to the Sun, as well as locations of gas giants far from the Sun (Jupiter-like planets)
- Note that all planets are formed at the same time as the sun.
- The chemical composition of the sun and the planets
- Existence of asteroids and comets
A description of a theory
The only theory that has been able to explain all of the above to date is the solar nebula theory. According to this theory, the solar system was formed about 4.568 billion years ago after the explosion of a molecular gas nebula.
In fact, a large molecular gas nebula with a diameter of several light-years was severely affected by what happened around it. This could be a supernova explosion or the passage of a star, disrupting the nebula’s gravity. This causes the nebula areas to become entangled and the center of the nebula to condense. The result of this condensation was a nebula attempt in the form of a celestial body.
This object, which contains 99.9% of the material inside the nebula, first became a protostar. Scientifically, this protostar belongs to the family of T-stars. These protostars contain gas nebulae that contain protoplanetary matter, and most of their mass is concentrated in the protostar itself.
The remnants of extraterrestrial matter produce planets, asteroids, and comets. About 50 million years after the initial shock wave that caused the explosion, the core of the central star became so hot that it began to fuse. The stirring provided enough pressure and heat to balance the mass and gravity of the outer layers. At that time, the newborn star was in hydrostatic equilibrium, and the baby star officially became our current sun.
In the region surrounded by the newborn star, small, warm objects collided to form larger objects called planetary particles. Gradually, these planetary particles became large enough to form a sphere with the help of their internal gravitational force.
These planetary particles continued to grow until they formed today’s grooves. The inner world, close to the sun, remained rocky as strong solar winds carried most of the nebula’s gases to colder places. These gases were trapped by Jupiter-like planets and became part of their structure.
Gradually, the accumulation of materials due to the collision slowed down. The newly formed clusters of planets found fixed orbits, and some of them moved from the inner parts of the solar system to farther parts.
Does the Solar Nebula theory apply to other systems?
Over the years, astronomers have developed a theory that is consistent with our observations of the solar system. The balance between temperature and mass in the inner parts of the solar system explains the structure we see and the reason for the formation of the orbits of the planets in this way. It also describes how planets form and change due to meteorite collisions and bombings.
However, when we look at other systems, we see that their structure is unbalanced. The existence of giant gas giants near the stars of those systems is in clear contradiction to the theory of the solar nebula. Maybe there were some dynamics and activities that we were unaware of in this theory.
One of the points we can emphasize is that our solar system is inherent and unique and has more compact and rigid materials than other systems. Perhaps this leads us to the fact that our solar system is not formed exactly as we thought.