# Download The Greate Courses – An Introduction to Formal Logic 2021-5

## Description

• Critical thinkers who aspire to make better decisions, whether as doctors, lawyers, investors, managers, or others who are faced with the task of weighing conflicting options.
• Enthusiasts of intellectual history who want to trace one of the most influential and overlooked currents of thought from ancient times to the present day.
• Philosophy students for whom logic is the gold standard for evaluating philosophical arguments and the course required to master this discipline.
• Mathematics students who want to understand the foundations of their discipline and get a glimpse into the machinery that drives every written mathematical equation.
• Anyone curious about how computers work, because programs don’t know anything about words, sentences, or even numbers—they only understand logic.
• Those who are fascinated by language, the brain, and other cognitive science topics, because logic models language, meaning, and thought better than any other tool.

Professor Gimbel begins by noting that humans are designed to accept false beliefs. For example, we have a strong compulsion to change our point of view to fit the opinion of a group, especially if we are the only ones keeping it – even if we are sure we are right. From these and other cases of cognitive bias where our instincts work against correct reasoning, you can see how logic is a wonderful correction that protects us from ourselves. With this fascinating beginning, an introduction to formal logic unfolds as follows:

• Logical Concepts: You will become familiar with deductive and inductive arguments and the criteria used to evaluate them – validity and justification. Then you learn that arguments have two parts: the conclusion (what is being argued for) and the premises (the support given for the conclusion).
• Informal Logic: This type of logical analysis, often called critical thinking, looks at features other than the form of the argument – hence “informal”. Here, you focus on proving the truth of premises, as well as spotting standard rhetorical tricks and logical fallacies.
• Inductive reasoning: You will then learn to evaluate the validity of an argument using induction, which examines various cases and then forms a general conclusion. Inductive reasoning is an example of science, taking what we already know and logically allowing us to believe something new.
• Formal symbolic deductive logic: Known as “formal” logic because of its focus on the form of arguments, this family of techniques uses symbolic language to evaluate the validity of a wide variety of deductive arguments that draw details from rules or It deduces general principles.
• Modal Logic: After an intensive exploration of formal logic, you enter modal logic and learn to handle sentences that deal with possibility and necessity, called modality. Modal logic has been very influential in moral philosophy.
• Current Developments: You take the course by looking at recent developments, such as three-valued logic systems and fuzzy logic, which expand our ability to reason by denying what seems to be the basis of all logic – that sentences must be true or false. .

### What you will learn in An Introduction to Formal Logic

• Learn about common logical fallacies such as circular reasoning, slippery slope, and oversimplification.
• Examine what makes deductive arguments valid.
• Use truth tables to test the validity of the famous form of reasoning called modus ponens and verify the conclusion.
• Follow the work of Hilbert, Cantor, Frege, Russell, and Gödel to prove that the logical consistency of mathematics can be reduced to elementary calculus.

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